CH13 II and 14 Zumdahl 2008 for Web [Compatibility Mode]

CH13 II and 14 Zumdahl 2008 for Web [Compatibility Mode] -...

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N t Ch t 13 II t 14 Next: Chapter 13-II to 14 What is the true shape of BF 3 ?
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CHAPTERS 13/14 Molecular Structure & Covalent Bonding Theories ¾ Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory ¾ Polar Molecules: The Influence of Molecular shape ¾ Valence Bond (VB) Theory = Localized Electron Model Molecular Shapes and Bonding ¾ Molecular orbitals
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Six “Electron Arrangements”: Linear Trigonal Planar Tetrahedral Trigonal Bipyramidal Octahedral Pentagonal Bipyramidal Compounds Containing Double Bonds C d C t i i T i l B d Compounds Containing Triple Bonds Summary of Electronic Arrangements and Molecular Shapes
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What is the shape of BF 3 ?
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The six electronic arrangements
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All the molecular shapes…..
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Two Simple Theories of Covalent Two Simple Theories of Covalent Bonding Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory – Commonly designated as VSEPR R. J. Gillespie in the 1950’s Valence Bond Theory = Localized Electron Model – Involves the use of hybridized atomic orbitals L. Pauling in the 1930’s & 40’s
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Predicting molecular structures: The Strategy 1 Draw the correct Lewis dot structure 1. . Identify the central atom. Designate the bonding pairs and lone pairs of Designate the bonding pairs and lone pairs of electrons on central atom. 2. Count the regions of “high electron density” (HED) on the central atom. Each lone pair on the central atom is one HED. Each atom bonded to the central atom is one HED.
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3 Determine the electronic 3. Determine the arrangement around the central atom. VSEPR is a guide to the arrangement. 4. Determine the molecular shape around the central atom. I h l i f l Ignore the lone pairs of electrons. 5 Adjust molecular shape for the effect 5. Adjust molecular shape for the effect of any lone pairs (repulsions).
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6. Determine the hybrid orbitals on 6. Determine the on the central atom. 7. Repeat procedure if there is more than one central atom in the than one central atom in the molecule. 8. Determine molecular polarity from entire molecular shape using electronegativity differences and electronegativity differences and symmetry.
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Counting regions of HIGH ELECTRON DENSITY
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Counting regions of HIGH ELECTRON DENSITY
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Counting regions of HIGH ELECTRON DENSITY
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VSEPR Theory: VSEPR Theory: Geometries/Shapes Main guiding principle: Regions of high electron density around the central atom are arranged as far apart as possible to minimize repulsions . There are six basic electronic arrangements based on the number of regions of high electron density around the central atom.
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VSEPR Theory Two regions of high electron density around the central atom density around the central atom. LINEAR
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VSEPR Theory Three regions of high electron density around the central atom. TRIGONAL PLANAR
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VSEPR Theory Four regions of high electron density around the regions of high electron density around the central atom.
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