CH16 ZUMDAHL liquids and solids 2008 for Web [Compatibility Mode]

CH16 ZUMDAHL liquids and solids 2008 for Web [Compatibility Mode]

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hapter 16: Chapter 16: termolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces Impact of Intermolecular Forces on Chemical Properties iquids Liquids Solids
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The three states olid iquid as Solid Liquid Gas
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Densities of the three states of water
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Forces Intramolecular Intermolecular Covalent bonds: 400 kJ/mole Ion-dipole: 15 kJ/mole ipole ipole: 2 kJ/mole nic bonds: Dipole-dipole: 2 kJ/mole ydrogen bonding: 10 kJ/mole Ionic bonds: 250 kJ/mole Hydrogen bonding: 10 kJ/mole Dipole-induced dipole: 1 kJ/mole London dispersion: 2 kJ/mole Big impact on chemical properties: melting points, boiling points, viscosity, etc.
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termolecular forces Intermolecular forces • Survey of intermolecular forces – ion-dipole, dipole-dipole, others… – Mainly defined by two properties of molecules: • dipole moment and polarizability – big influence on the existence of three states of matter: gas Æ liquid Æ solid – impact on chemical properties (boiling point, melting point, viscosity, etc.)
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Intermolecular forces : The forces that exist between olecules (liquids solids); their strengths depend on molecules (liquids, solids); their strengths depend on the nature of the individual molecules and the distances between the molecules • Ion-ion (very strong) • Ion-dipole (quite strong) • Dipole-Dipole (moderately strong) • Dipole-Induced Dipole (weakest) • London dispersion (weak to strong) Impact on properties : boiling point, melting point, viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure
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Potential Energy of interactions as a Ions function of distance between the atoms Fixed dipoles Ions and dipoles Rotating dipoles Recall: E p = q 1 q 2 4 πε o r (potential energy f two ions) of two ions)
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Dipole moment u = 1.85 D Polarizability α = 1.48 x 10 -24 cm 3 δ - δ +
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Interaction between two ions: Recall: = q E p q 1 q 2 4 πε o r Na + Cl - (Coulomb potential energy of two ions) r 50 00 kJ/mol 150 400 kJ/mol
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Ion-Dipole Interactions: Between polar molecules and ions Hydration of Na + Hydration of Cl -
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CH16 ZUMDAHL liquids and solids 2008 for Web [Compatibility Mode]

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