Chapter 15 - The Nervous System The Brain Cranial Nerves...

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Embryology (3 Layered Embryo) Primitive Streak (week 3): assigned the embryo to be cranial-caudal access Blue layer - ectoderm (774) Development of the Nervous System Neural folds fuse centrally and form a neural tube Nervous system develops from ectoderm 21 days (week 3) - you have a neural tube (777) Development of the Brain WEEK 3 WEEK 5 AT BIRTH CAVITIES Prosencephalon Telencephelon Cerebrum 2 lateral ventricles Diencephalon Diencephalon 3rd ventricle Mesencephalon Mesencephalon Mesencephalon Aqueduct of Silvius Rhombencephalon Metencephalon Upper 1/2 4th ventricle Myelencephelon Medulla oblongata Lower 1/2 4th ventricle Once out of the foramen magnum, it is called spinal cord Lateral ventricles are line with ependymal cells (to make CSF) Interventricular Foramen of Monroe -lateral with 3rd ventricle Aqueduct of the Midbrain -3rd with 4th ventricle Foramen of Luscka -lateral openings on 4th ventricle Foramen of Magendie -medial opening on the 4th ventricle
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(396) Circulation of CSF 1. Extension of choroid plexus into lateral ventricle 2. Interventricular Foramen of Monroe 3. Choroid plexus of the 3rd ventricle 4. Aqueduct of the Midbrain 5. L ateral aperture (Foramen of L uscka) 6. Choroid plexus of the 4th ventricle 7. M edian aperture (Foramen of M agende) (393) Meninges 1. Dura Matter (tough) - most external; 2 layers (391) a. Endosteal layer - facing skull b. Meningeal layer - facing arachnoid Falx Cerebri (folds) - seperates the 2 cerebral hemispheres Tentorium Cerebelli (tent) Falx Cerebelli Diaphragma sellae - forms a diaphragm around the hypophyseal fossa, where your pituitary sits 2. Arachnoid (spider) - middle layer 3. Pia Matter - close to brain; alot of astrocytes; highly vascular Scalp (aponeurosis, loose connective tissue. periosteum, cranium) -- dura -- arachnoid -- pia (388) Major Divisions of the Brain cerebral hemispheres (telencephalon) - o conscious thought processes, intellectual functions
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o o diencephalon - o thalamus : relay & processing centers for sensory information except smell -- unless you want to create memory o hypothalamus (below the thalamus): controls emotions, centers -- respiratory, temperature, satiety, thirst, autonomic (controls things you have no control mesencephalon (middle brain) - middle portion that did not grow (Aqueduct of Silvius) o o ventral - motor area o maintenance of consciousness metencephalon - o pons (ventral, 'bridge') o cerebellum - motor sensors as well (connected with pons)
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Chapter 15 - The Nervous System The Brain Cranial Nerves...

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