311DCh14 - Ch. 14 pg 262 285 Character is a heritable...

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Ch. 14 pg 262 – 285 Character – is a heritable feature, such as flower color, that varies among individuals Trait – each variant for a character, such as purple or white color for flowers Cross pollination – fertilization between different organisms (plants) True breeding: when true breeding plants self pollinate, their offspring are of the same variety True breeding has occurred if the first generation hybrids produced all have purple flowers, that is, they have the same color should be produced if they hadn’t been purely cross bred. Hybridization – mating, or crossing, of two true-breeding varieties P generation – true-breeding parents (parental generation) F1 Generation – (first filial generation, ‘son’) – hybrid offspring of the P generation F2 Generation - Allowing F1 hybrids to self pollinate produces a second filial generation Alleles – alternative versions of a gene found at a specific locus on a chromosome Mendel’s Model 1. Alternative versions of genes account for variations in inherited characters. 2. For each character, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent 3. If the two alleles at a locus differ, then one, the dominant allele, determines the organism’s appearance; the other, the recessive allele, has no noticeable effect on the organism’s appearance 4. Law of Segregation - the two alleles for a heritable character separate (segregate) during gamete formation and end up in different gametes; egg/ sperm get only one of the two alleles that are present in somatic cells; refers to the distribution of homologous chromosomes to different gametes in meiosis Punnett Square – diagrammatic device for predicting the allele composition of offspring from a cross between individuals of known genetic makeup Homozygous – an organism having a pair of identical alleles for a character
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311DCh14 - Ch. 14 pg 262 285 Character is a heritable...

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