311DCh25 - Ch. 25 pg. 507 533 Phylogeny the evolutionary...

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Ch. 25 pg. 507 – 533 Phylogeny – the evolutionary history of a species or group of species Systematics – an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of organisms Molecular systematics – uses comparisons of DNA, RNA, and other molecules to infer evolutionary relationships between individual genes and even between entire genomes Fossil record – based on the sequence in which fossils have accumulated in such strata Analogy – similarity due to convergent evolution, rather than shared ancestry (homology) Convergent evolution – occurs when similar environmental pressures and natural selection produce similar (analogous) adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages Homoplasies – analogous structures that have evolved independently, such as bat forelimbs and bird wings Taxonomy – ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to asses similarities and differences Linnaeus – wrote Systema naturae – taxonomic classification of all plants and animals known at the time Binomial – two part format of scientific name Genus – first part of binomial to which species belongs Specific epithet – one species within the genus; second part
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311DCh25 - Ch. 25 pg. 507 533 Phylogeny the evolutionary...

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