311DCh29 - Ch. 29 pg. 600 617 Plants have cell walls made...

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Ch. 29 pg. 600 – 617 Plants have cell walls made of cellulose and so do green algae Four traits that land plants share only with charophyceans: 1. Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis – located in the plasma membrane; synthesize the cellulose microfibrils of the cell walls 2. Peroxisome enzymes – peroxisomes contain enzymes that minimize loss of organic products as a result of photorespiration 3. Structure of flagellated sperm – land plants and charophycean sperm look alike 4. Formation of a phragmoplast – an alignment of cytoskeletal elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the midline of the dividing cell Sporopollenin – in charophyceans, a layer of durable polymer that prevents exposed zygotes from drying out; protects walls of plant spores from harsh environments Tradition equates the kingdom Plantae with embryophytes meaning plants with embryos. Five key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are absent in charophyceans: 1. Apical meristems 2. Alternation of generations 3. Walled spores produced in sporangia 4. Multicellular gametangia 5. Multicellular, dependent embryos Cuticle – epidermis in many species has a covering that consists of polymers called polyesters and waxes; acts as a waterproofing, helping prevent excessive water loss from the above-ground plant organs, while also providing some protection from microbial attack Secondary compounds – products of secondary metabolic pathways – side branches off the primary metabolic pathways that produce lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, etc. Apical meristems – localized regions of cell division at the tips of shoots and roots; cells produced by apical meristems differentiate into surface epidermis (protects body) or leaf bearing shoots and roots Alternation of generations – life cycles of all land plants alternate between two different multicellular bodies, with each form producing the other; distinguished by both
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course BIO 311D taught by Professor Reichler during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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311DCh29 - Ch. 29 pg. 600 617 Plants have cell walls made...

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