311DCh35 - Ch. 35 pg. 738-751 & 755-763; pg 714 Plasticity...

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Ch. 35 pg. 738-751 & 755-763; pg 714 Plasticity – an organism’s ability to alter or mold itself in response to local environmental conditions; extreme developmental plasticity is much more common in plants than in animals and may help compensate for their lack of mobility Morphology –characteristics of external form, that varies little among plants within the species; due to natural selection Tissue – group of cells with a common function, structure, or both Organ – several types of tissues that together carry out a particular function Three basic plant organs: roots, stems, and leaves Root system – nonphotosynthetic and would starve without the organic nutrients imported from the shoot system; Shoot system – consists of stems and leaves; depends on water and minerals that roots absorb from soil Vegetative shoots – non-reproductive shoots Reproductive shoots – in angiosperms these are flowers Root – an organ that anchors a vascular plant, absorbs minerals and water, and often stores organic nutrients Taproot system – most Eudicots and gymnosperms have; consists of one main vertical root (taproot) that develops from an embryonic root; gives rise to lateral roots; stores organic nutrients that plant consumes during flowering and fruit production Lateral roots – branch roots; Fibrous root system – mat of generally thin roots spreading out below the soil surface, with no root standing out as the main one; embryonic root has died, and small roots have penetrated from stem with their own lateral roots Adventitious – roots arising from the stem; any plant that grows in unusual location Rhizomes – anchor monocots like palms and bamboo; horizontal underground stems Entire root system helps anchor, but absorption of water and minerals occurs at the tips, where vast numbers of tiny root hairs increase the surface area of the root enormously Root hairs – an extension of a root epidermal cell Stem – organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes, the points at which leaves are attached, and internodes, the stem segments between nodes Axillary bud – a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot; commonly called a branch; most Axillary buds of a young shoot are dormant Terminal bud – shoot apex (tip) with developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes
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Apical dominance – proximity of terminal bud is partly responsible for inhibiting the growth of Axillary buds; evolutionary adaptation that increases the plant’s exposure to light A growing Axillary bud gives rise to a lateral shoot, complete with its own terminal bud, leaves, and Axillary buds Removing the terminal bud usually stimulates growth of Axillary buds, resulting in more lateral shoots Leaf – main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants, although green stems also perform photosynthesis Blade – flattened piece of leaf Petiole – stalk; joins the leaf to a node of the stem; angiosperms, grasses, lack petioles Veins – monocots and Eudicots differ in arrangement; vascular tissue of leaves;
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course BIO 311D taught by Professor Reichler during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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311DCh35 - Ch. 35 pg. 738-751 & 755-763; pg 714 Plasticity...

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