311DCh40 - Ch. 40 pg. 852-874; 822 Anatomy study of the...

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Ch. 40 pg. 852-874; 822 Anatomy – study of the structure of an organism Physiology – study of the functions an organism performs Convergence occurs because natural selection shapes similar adaptations when diverse organisms face the same environmental challenge Tissues – groups of cells with a common structure and function; ex. Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous Epithelial tissue – covers the outside of the body and lines of organs and cavities within the body; tight packing enables epithelium to function as a barrier against mechanical injury, microbes, and fluid loss Grandular epithelia – absorb or secrete chemical solutions Mucous membrane – secrete mucus that lubricates the surface and keeps it moist Simple epithelium – single layer of cells Stratified epithelium – mutiple tiers of cells Cuboidal – like dice Columnar – like bricks standing on end Squamous – like floor tiles Connective tissue – functions mainly to bind and support other tissues Collagenous fibers – made of collagen; most abundant protein in animal kingdom; nonelastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise Elastic fibers – long threads of protein called elastin; rubbery quality that complements nonelastic strength of collageneous fibers Reticular fibers – thin and branched; joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues Fibroblasts – secrete protein ingredients of extracellular fibers Macrophages- amoeboid cells that roam the maze of fibers, engulfing foreign particles
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311DCh40 - Ch. 40 pg. 852-874; 822 Anatomy study of the...

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