311DCh41 - Ch. 41 pg. 845-864 Herbivores eat autotrophs...

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Ch. 41 pg. 845-864 Herbivores – eat autotrophs Carnivores – eat other animals Omnivores – eat both Undernourishment – stores of glycogen and fat are used up, the body begins breaking down its own proteins for fuel, muscles begin to decrease in size, and the brain can become protein deficient Overnourishment (obesity) – excessive food intake, body stores excess fat molecules instead of using them for fuel Essential nutrients – materials that must be obtained in preassembled form because the animal’s cells cannot make them from any raw material Malnourished – an animal whose diet is missing one or more essential nutrients Vitamins – organic molecules required in the diet in amounts that are quite small compared with the relatively large required quantities of essential amino acids and fatty acids Minerals – simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts Ingestion – act of eating Digestion – breaking down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb A cell makes a macromolecule by linking together monomers; it does so by removing a molecule of water for each new covalent bond formed; digestion reverses this process by breaking bonds and adding water Enzymatic Hydrolysis – splitting process Absorption – animal cells take up (absorb) small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars Elimination – undigested material passes out of the digestive compartment Intracellular digestion – digestion within a cell Extracellular digestion – breakdown of food outside cells
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311DCh41 - Ch. 41 pg. 845-864 Herbivores eat autotrophs...

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