311DCh44 - Ch. 44 pg. 922-938 Osmoregulation how animals...

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Ch. 44 pg. 922-938 Osmoregulation – how animals regulate solute concentrations and balance the gain and loss of water Excretion – how animals get rid of the nitrogen containing waste products of metabolism Osmolarity – occurs when two solutions separated by the membrane differ in osmotic pressure Hyperosmotic – greater concentration of solutes Hypoosmotic – more dilute solution Water flows by osmosis from a hypoosmotic solution to a hyperosmotic one Osmoconformer – an animal that does not actively adjust its internal Osmolarity; often live in water that has a very stable composition and a very constant internal Osmolarity Osmoregulator – an animal that must control its internal Osmolarity because its body fluids are not isoosmotic with the outside environment; must discharge water if it lives in a hypoosmotic environment or take in water if it inhabits a hyperosmotic environment; freshwater habitats Stenohaline – cannot tolerate substantial changes in external Osmolarity Euryhaline – can survive large fluctuations in external Osmolarity Anhydrobiosis – some aquatic invertebrates living in temporary ponds can lose almost all their body water and survive in a dormant state when their habitats dry up Function of Osmoregulation is to maintain the composition of cellular cytoplasm * Transport epithelium – a layer or layers of specialized epithelial cells that regulate solute movements are essential components of osmotic regulation and metabolic waste disposal; move specific solutes in controlled amounts in specific directions Ammonia (NH3) – a very toxic molecule; when macromolecules are broken apart for energy or converted to carbohydrates or fats; enzymes remove nitrogen in the form of ammonia; urea/uric acid are different forms that vary in toxicity; mainly fish
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This note was uploaded on 02/01/2011 for the course BIO 311D taught by Professor Reichler during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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311DCh44 - Ch. 44 pg. 922-938 Osmoregulation how animals...

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