BME314_imaging_overview

BME314_imaging_overview - (Bio)Medical Imaging...

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( Bio)Medical Imaging Stanislav (Stas) Emelianov [email protected] Department of Biomedical Engineering The University of Texas
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2 Plan General overview of medical imaging: principles, systems, and applications X-ray Imaging Nuclear Medicine Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Ultrasound Imaging Homework Some number of hours Quiz – Later Exam Good luck! Reading Corresponding chapters from the textbook
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3 Disclaimer You will not learn much about (bio)medical imaging BME 357 covers more of imaging modalities (beware: it is a tough engineering class – no luck!) Goal(s) None (see above) There will be an ALARMING increase in the number of things you (and I) know nothing about Rules: no computers, no reading newspapers, no cell phones, sleeping is OK (no snoring)
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4 Primary Biomedical Imaging Modalities Projection Radiography • Fluoroscopy X-ray Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Nuclear Medicine Imaging, i.e., SPECT and PET Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Imaging (MRI) NMR Spectroscopy Ultrasound Imaging Optical Imaging (not covered)
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5 History of Modalities Discover of X-rays by William Roentgen in 1895 X-rays were used to produce shadowgrams First clinical use of X-rays in U.S. – 02/03/1896 Slow progress until 1960s 1960s: invention of X-ray Computed Tomography, radiographic applications increased enormously Industry interest, participation and investment 1970s: many other imaging modalities Ultrasound Nuclear Medicine Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MRI)
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6 History of Modalities Other modalities under development Microwaves Visible (or near visible) light Modalities with limited success / set of applications Resistive Imaging Thermal Imaging General technical development new applications more sophisticated systems combined (multi-modal) imaging contrast agents imaging and therapy
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7 Medical Imaging System All medical imaging systems are based on the physical interaction between some energy source and the human body Exceptions, such as phonocardiography and thermography, where an internal energy source within the body are used, are rare and represent very few applications
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8 Medical Imaging System A modern medical imaging system can be described using the following most generic block diagram Energy Detector Detector Electronics (Digital) Conversion (Digital) Processing (Digital) Storage Display Computer Control Human Interface Electronic Control Energy Source Source Electronics Human Body Control
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9 With any imaging system, the goal is to provide images with Diagnostic (morphologic, functional, etc.) information High Contrast High Resolution Low Noise High Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) High Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) No artifacts
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10 Part I: Radiography
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11 X-ray based Imaging: Principles The patient is placed between X-ray source and detector, and a burst of photons is transmitted into the body X-ray photons interact with tissue and the transmitted photons are detected The received signal is used to form an image
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