1 - Syllabus and Lecture 1

1 - Syllabus and Lecture 1 - PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE PETE...

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Unformatted text preview: PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING INSTRUCTOR – W. CLAY KIMBRELL, P.E., C.P.G. PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING W. Clay Kimbrell, P.E., C.P.G. ­ Instructor 1138 Florida Street Baton Rouge, LA 70802 Office Hours are immediately after class or by appointment Office Phone ­ 346­4700 E­mail – lucror@aol.com PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING OPTIONAL RECOMMENDED TEXTBOOK: Applied Subsurface Geological Mapping by Daniel J. Tearpock and Richard E. Bischke PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING GRADING Attendance 3 exams @ 20% each grade Homework grade Final Exam or Project grade 100­90 89­80 B 79­70 C 69­60 D 59­0 5% of final grade 60% of final 25% of final 10% of final A F PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING MAKE­UP POLICY General policy is late homework will not be accepted. Make­up exams in general will not be given but will be handled on a case by case basis as long as it is not habitual (i.e. one time per semester if a good excuse is given). Emergencies are exceptions as long as it is verifiable. PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING GENERAL TOPICS General geology as it relates to Petroleum Engineering Electric log interpretation Electric log correlation and Cross­sections Subsurface geological mapping ­ structure, isopach, fault, etc 3­D Seismic, if time allows PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THIS SYLLABUS IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING PETE 3053 Lecture #1 Geologic time scale Section ­ Township ­ Range and the Quarter/ Quarter system Measured Depth vs. true depth Straight Wells Directional Wells Geologic Time Scale Geologic Time Scale Directional Wells Directional Wells Directional Survey Directional Survey 1) Subsea depth of wellbore in feet 2) Measured depth of wellbore in feet 3) True vertical depth of wellbore 4) Angle of wellbore deviation 5) Direction of wellbore 6) Distance from the surface location along the the proposed directional path 7) True bearing and distance of each survey point from surface location in rectangular coordinates 8) True bearing and distance from surface location directly to each survey point 9) Maximum change in hole angle in degrees per 100 feet Map to Cross­Section View Map to Cross­Section View Map This!! Map This!! PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Uniformitarianism ­ geologic processes active today have been operative in the past and hence that past geologic events are to be interpreted on the basis of the physical, chemical and biological laws recognized at present. Superposition ­ the law of superposition defines a layer of rock or sediment as younger than the one upon which it lies. PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Cross Cutting relationship ­ the older event is cut by the younger event....for example, a fault cutting sediment is younger than the sediment .Types of Rocks­ Igneous ­ those that have solidified or crystalized out of a molten state or magma. Metamorphic­ derived from other types of rocks through alteration by heat and/or pressure. Sedimentary ­ consists of sand grains of the mineral quartz, together with lesser amounts of other had minerals, bonded together with natural cements of various composition. Ex. ­ sandstone, shale, siltstone, limestone (calcium carbonate, calcium and magnesium {dolomite) Evaporites ­ chemical precipitates such as gypsum (CaSO4­2H2O, plaster of paris), anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate ­ CaSO4) or salt (halite ­ NaCl). PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Stratification ­ the manner in which sediments are distributed results in distinct layers or stratification. An individual layer is called a stratum and two or more are called strata or bed and beds....one of the primary characteristics of sedimentary rocks. Paleontology ­ the science of fossils Micropaleontology ­ study of micro­fossils. PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Geologic Basins Topographic ­ broad more or less flat portions of valleys or plains areas surrounded by hills or mountains Structural ­ rock strata are depressed in central portions relative to margins Sedimentary ­ relatively thick sediments were deposited and the thickness of the deposits diminishes toward the margins. PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Examples of Geologic Structures Important to the Petroleum Industry Unconformities ­ deposition, erosion, deposition Anticline ­ arch like fold with the line along the crest being the axis Disconformity – rocks on opposite sides of unconformity are parallel Angular Unconformity – deposition, deformation, erosion, deposition Syncline ­ trough like fold Dome ­ an inverted bowl with the apex being the highest point Faults ­ a break through rocks along which the strata have slipped away from their original positions Normal faults Reverse faults Thrust faults ­ reverse fault whose plane is less than 30 degrees. PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM PETE 3053 – SUBSURFACE ASPECTS OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Hydrocarbons in rocks A hydrocarbon bearing rock is porous, not an open cavern. There must be a “trap.” Structural trap Stratigraphic trap Combination trap ...
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