PL100 WPR 2

PL100 WPR 2 - PL100 WPR 2 Study Guide LESSON 8 Key...

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PL100 WPR 2 Study Guide LESSON 8 Key Objectives: - Absolute Threshold - Just Noticeable Difference - Signal detection theory - Four senses (hearing, taste, touch, smell) LESSON 9 Key Objectives: - Vision - Gestalt Principles (SFC over SPCS) - Bottom-up vs. Top-down Processing - Perceptual Set - Perceptual constancies - Binocular depth cues - Monocular depth cues (THRILL) LESSON 10 Key Objectives - Effects of Sleep deprivation - Circadian rhythms - REM vs. Non-REM sleep - Effects of disrupting circadian rhythms - Alcohol and drug characteristics LESSON 11 Key Objectives - Improving memory (6 methods) - Encoding, storage, retrieval - Levels of processing - Enriching encoding LESSON 12 Key Objectives - Pitfalls in reasoning (pg 328) - Barriers to reasoning - Approaches: heuristics/ algorithms - Strategies in decision making - 7-step problem solving process LESSON 8 The absolute threshold for a specific type of sensory input is the minimum stimulus intensity that an organism can detect 50% of the time A Just Noticeable Difference is the smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detect ** Webber’s Law states that the size of a JND is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus. Signal-detection theory proposes that the detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory processes , which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides stimulus intensity (the detection of sensory inputs is influenced by noise in the system and by decision-making strategies). **Four Possible outcomes in detecting a stimulus: Hits: detecting signals when they are present Misses: failing to detect signals when they are present False alarms: detecting signals when they are not present Correct rejections: not detecting signals when they are absent Sensory adaptation : is a gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation. Sensory adaptation is an autonomic, built-in process that keeps people tuned into the changes rather than the constants in their sensory input. Auditory system Three properties of sound and their corresponding perceptions: Amplitude loudness, wavelength pitch, purity timbre
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The greater amplitude of sound waves, the louder the sound perceived. Amplitude is measured in decibels. In general, the perceived loudness doubles about every 10 decibels. Wavelengths of sound are describe in terms of their frequency (hertz), which is measured in cycles per second. Higher frequencies have higher pitch The purity or complexity of a sound influences how timbre is perceived. Gustatory system: taste buds Primary tastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter Olfactory system: Olfactory cilia: hair- like structure in the upper portion of nasal passages No primary odors Smell is routed through the thalamus which is why smell is attached to memories Touch: Mechanical, thermal, and chemical energy LESSON 9 Four properties of visual stimulus and their corresponding perceptions: Amplitude : affects mainly the perception of brightness Wavelength
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PL100 WPR 2 - PL100 WPR 2 Study Guide LESSON 8 Key...

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