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Organic Chemistry 353-Chapter 3

Organic Chemistry 353-Chapter 3 - A functional group...

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Organic Molecules and Functional Groups A certain arrangement of atoms is called a functional group A functional group determines all of the following properties of a molecule: Bonding and shape Type and strength of intermolecular forces Physical properties Nomenclature Chemical reactivity
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Hydrocarbons
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Hydrocarbons : Alkanes H H CH 4 H H Methane Saturated compounds Have general formula C n H 2n+2 Isolated from natural gas and petroleum
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Hydrocarbons : Alkenes H H C H H H C 2 H 4 Unsaturated compounds Limonene Ethene Have general formula C n H 2n Produced in large quantities for polymer industry Many naturally occurring alkenes exist
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Hydrocarbons : Alkynes H H C 2 H 2 Ethyne (acetylene) Unsaturated compounds Have general formula C H Have general formula C n H 2n 2 Ethyne synthesised by Wohler from CaC 2 and H 2 O Alkynes find applications in medicine
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