Skeletal System - BIOL 121 Anatomy & Physiology I LECTURE...

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LECTURE NOTES - SKELETAL SYSTEM I. Functions A. Support B. Protection 1. Bone casing of skull, vertebral column and ribs C. Movement 1. Anchoring attachments for muscles. D. Storage 1. Minerals, calcium and phosphorus. E. Cell Formation 1. Hemopoiesis - In adults, red bone marrow produces RBC’s, WBC’s and platelets. II. Classification A. Long 1. Longer than they are wide, function as levers. 2. EX: Humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, metatarsal, metacarpal, phalanges B. Short 1. Cube-shaped 2. EX: Carpals and Tarsals C. Flat 1. Broad, dense surface 2. Cranium, ribs, and bones of shoulder girdle D. Irregular 1. Irregular shape 2. Vertebra III. Types of Bone Tissue A. Compact Bone 1. Hard, compact bone formed by the arrangement of osteons. B. Spongy Bone Porous bone, lattice like appearance formed by trabeculae. Gives strength with minimal weight.
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A. COMPACT BONE 1. Osteon - basic structural unit a) Lamellae - bone matrix arranged in rings around a central canal b) Haversian or central canal - blood vessels and nerves c) Osteocytes - spider shaped mature bone cells d ) Lacunae - home of osteocytes lying in between lamellae e) Canaliculi - small canals connecting osteocytes to Haversian canal. Transport system for nutrients and wastes. f) Volkmann’s or perforating canals - right angles to Haversian, connects blood and nerve supply of periosteum to Haversian canal. B. STRUCTURE OF LONG BONE 1. Diaphyses - shaft, collar of compact bone 2. Epiphyses - bone ends, layer of compact covering spongy bone red bone marrow produces blood cells proximal, near body midline distal, away from body midline 3. Epiphyseal Plate - Cartilage at the junction of the epiphysis and diaphysis; area of bone growth – length; replaced by bone as your age, forms epiphyseal line between ages 18-22 4. Articular Cartilage - covers end of bone where it articulates (meets) another bone cushions, absorbs shock (hyalin cartilage) 5. Periosteum - covers the outer surface of diaphysis; anchor point for tendons and ligaments; dense irregular CT and osteoblasts richly supplied by nerve, lymph, blood vessels. Sharpeys or perforating fibers - collagen securing to bone 6. Endosteum - lines medullary cavity; osteoblasts and osteoclast activity 7. Medullary Cavity - core region of diaphysis; contains yellow bone marrow 8. Diploe – in flat bone, middle region of spongy bone covered by plates of compact bone; red bone marrow located here (sternum, pelvis) Hematopoiesis - formation of blood cells, process occurs mostly in diploe of flat bones
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(sternum) and some irregular bone (os coxae) and the head (epiphysis) of femur and humerus. D. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BONE Bone is classified as Connective Tissue 1. Cells a) Osteoblasts - Bone forming cells, secrete matrix and form new bone b) Osteoclast - bone destroying cells, secrete enzymes that "digest" bone; role in bone growth, remodeling and healing c) Osteocytes - mature bone cells, trapped by mineralized matrix; role in maintaining
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2011 for the course BIOL 121 taught by Professor Hopper during the Fall '10 term at University of Evansville.

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Skeletal System - BIOL 121 Anatomy & Physiology I LECTURE...

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