Skeletal System - BIOL 121 Anatomy & Physiology I LECTURE...

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BIOL 121 Anatomy & Physiology ILECTURE NOTES - SKELETAL SYSTEMI. FunctionsA. SupportB. Protection1. Bone casing of skull, vertebral column and ribsC. Movement1. Anchoring attachments for muscles.D. Storage1. Minerals, calcium and phosphorus.E. Cell Formation1. Hemopoiesis - In adults, red bone marrow produces RBC’s, WBC’s and platelets.II. ClassificationA. Long1. Longer than they are wide, function as levers.2. EX: Humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, metatarsal, metacarpal, phalangesB. Short1. Cube-shaped2. EX: Carpals and TarsalsC. Flat1. Broad, dense surface2. Cranium, ribs, and bones of shoulder girdleD. Irregular1. Irregular shape2. VertebraIII. Types of Bone TissueA. Compact Bone1. Hard, compact bone formed by the arrangement of osteons.B. Spongy BonePorous bone, lattice like appearance formed by trabeculae. Gives strength withminimal weight.
A. COMPACT BONE1.Osteon- basic structural unita)Lamellae- bone matrix arranged in rings around a central canalb)Haversianor central canal - blood vessels and nervesc)Osteocytes- spider shaped mature bone cellsd) Lacunae- home of osteocytes lying in between lamellaee)Canaliculi- small canals connecting osteocytes to Haversian canal. Transportsystem for nutrients and wastes.f)Volkmann’s or perforating canals- right angles to Haversian, connects bloodand nerve supply of periosteum to Haversian canal.B. STRUCTURE OF LONG BONE1.Diaphyses- shaft, collar of compact bone2.Epiphyses- bone ends, layer of compact covering spongy bonered bone marrow produces blood cellsproximal, near body midlinedistal, away from body midline3.Epiphyseal Plate- Cartilage at the junction of the epiphysis and diaphysis; area ofbone growth – length; replaced by bone as your age, forms epiphyseal line between ages18-224.Articular Cartilage- covers end of bone where it articulates (meets) another bonecushions, absorbs shock (hyalin cartilage)5.Periosteum- covers the outer surface of diaphysis; anchor point for tendons andligaments; dense irregular CT and osteoblasts richly supplied by nerve, lymph, bloodvessels. Sharpeys or perforating fibers - collagen securing to bone6.Endosteum- lines medullary cavity; osteoblasts and osteoclast activity7.Medullary Cavity- core region of diaphysis; contains yellow bone marrow8.Diploe– in flat bone, middle region of spongy bone covered by plates of compactbone; red bone marrow located here (sternum, pelvis)Hematopoiesis- formation of blood cells, process occurs mostly in diploe of flat bones

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Term
Fall
Professor
Hopper
Tags
Physiology, Anatomy, Bone marrow, Bone Bone, Bone Porous bone, bone red bone

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