BME303_lecture8 - 1 BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 4:...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 4: Von Neumann Model BME303 Intro. to Computing 2 Problem Language Machine (ISA) Architecture Algorithms Micro-architecture Circuits Devices Data paths, von Neumann model Bottom Up LC-3: Little Computer 3 2 BME303 Intro. to Computing 3 The von Neumann Machine Model June 1945: John Von Neumann published a paper, in which he presented all of the basic elements of a stored-program computer: 1. A calculating unit capable of performing both arithmetic and logical operations on the data. 2. A memory containing both data and instructions. Also to allow both data and instruction memory locations to be read from, and written to, in any desired order. 3. A control unit, which could interpret an instruction retrieved from the memory and select alternative courses of action based on the results of previous operations. John von Neumann Copyright (c) 1997. Maxfield & Montrose Interactive Inc. BME303 Intro. to Computing 4 Von Neumann Model Memory Processing Unit Input Output MAR MDR ALU TEMP Control Unit PC IR * keyboard * monitor 3 BME303 Intro. to Computing 5 Bus and Cache Level 2 cache , cache memory that is external to the microprocessor. In general, L2 cache memory, also called the secondary cache , resides on a separate chip from the microprocessor chip. Although, more and more microprocessors are including L2 caches into their architectures. How big can the L1 and L2 cache be in intel Core 2 Duo CPU? Backside bus : A microprocessor bus that connects the CPU to a Level 2 cache usually at the full speed of CPU Frontside bus : The bus that connects the CPU to main memory on the motherboard. Fraction of speed of CPU Level 1 cache : caches are built into the architecture of microprocessors. BME303 Intro. to Computing 6 Memory 2 k x m array of stored bits Chapter 3 example: 2 2 x 3 Todays typical computer: 2 28 x 8 = 256 MB LC3 2 16 x 16 Address unique ( k-bit) identifier of location Contents m-bit value stored in location Basic Operations: LOAD read a value from a memory location STORE write a value to a memory location 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 1101 1110 1111 0000 0010 1010 0010 0000 0101 address contents 4 BME303 Intro. to Computing 7 Interface to Memory How does processing unit get data to/from memory? MAR : Memory Address Register MDR : Memory Data Register To LOAD from a location (A): 1. Write the address (A) into the MAR. 2. Send a read signal to the memory. 3. Read the data from MDR. MEMORY MAR MDR A Read/ LOAD data BME303 Intro. to Computing 8 Interface to Memory How does processing unit get data to/from memory? MAR : Memory Address Register MDR : Memory Data Register To STORE a value (X) to a location (A): 1. Write the data (X) to the MDR....
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2011 for the course BME 303 taught by Professor Ren during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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BME303_lecture8 - 1 BME303 Intro. to Computing Chapter 4:...

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