ANTH 101 B - Communication Conveys Ideas, Feelings, desires...

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Communication Conveys Ideas, Feelings, desires Grammar, Syntax, Diction Ability to comprehend as well as generate language Language Primary means of communication Transmitted through learning o Part of Enculturation All Human Use of Language is Symbolic o Meaning?. ...... Social and Cultural Context Can only humans discuss the past and future? o No, humans not the only ones that discuss the past and future o Higher primates have shown capacity to discuss past and future Humans convey complex cultural behavior Communication Agreeing to call an object, movement, or abstract concept by a common symbol. Other forms of communication: o Gestures, Facial Expression, body stance, tone of voice o Can completely alter the verbal meaning (i.e., sarcasm) o Writing, algebraic expressions, music Non-human Communication Animals: Sounds, odors, body movements Some animal communications are symbolic o When referent (thing being referred to) is not present, the communication is symbolic, and the communication has meaning. Vervet Monkeys in Africa – Communication regarding snake attacks on their young o Use complex call signs to signal danger – even when they cannot see the danger o Combine different sounds together to signal different kinds of danger Most Animal Communication systems are “Call Systems” Limited numbers of sounds produced in response to specific stimuli Calls cannot be combined to create new calls Calls are reflexive – they are automatic responses to specific stimuli Primate Vocal tract not suitable for speech – calls that are made have a limited range of sounds
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Human Lang Primate Lang Capacity to speak of things not present Stimuli dependent (displacement) Possess capacity to generate new expre. Consist of limited number of calls that C a n n o t b e c o m b i n e d Group specific – all humans posses lang. Are species specific Each group has its own lang. Nonhuman Primates and American Sign Language Washoe – Chimpanzee with about 100 ASL sign Koko – Gorilla – Uses 400 ASL and has used up to 700 Generated keyboard using variety of abstract symbols which Chimpanzee named Sherman was able to use to communicate with humans Learned Lexigrams and corresponding names of three kind of tools and three kinds of tools – “I need to use the hammer to crack the walnut” or “knife to peel the mango” Kanzi (Chimp) has come closest to having a primitive English grammar In an outing in the Georgia woods, Kanzi touched the symbols for marshmallows and fire. Cultural transmission – they have tried to teach ASL to other animals Productivity – They have combined two or more signs to create new expressions They have lied Displacement – they could talk about things that were not present. Origins of Language
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This note was uploaded on 02/02/2011 for the course ANTH 101 taught by Professor Boone during the Spring '07 term at New Mexico.

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ANTH 101 B - Communication Conveys Ideas, Feelings, desires...

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