BRONSTED ACIDS AND BASESConjugate Acid Base PairsA Bronsted Acidis any substance capable of donating a proton. A Bronsted Baseis any substance capable of accepting a proton. An extension of these definitions is the concept of the conjugate acid-base pair, which is defined as an acid and its conjugate base or a base and its conjugate acid.The conjugate baseof a Bronsted acid is the species that remains when one proton has been removed from the acid. Conversely, the conjugate acidof a Bronsted base is the species that results from the addition of a proton to a Bronsted base. Every Bronsted acid has a conjugate base, and every Bronsted base has a conjugate acid. ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF WATERWater can act as either an acid or as a base. Water functions as a base in reactions with acids, and water functions as an acid in reactions with bases. Water is a very weak electrolyte, and therefore a poor conductor of electricity, but it does undergo ionization to a small extent. H2O(l) ↔H+(aq) + OH-(aq) This reaction is referred to as the autoionization of water.This can also be represented by the following equation: H2O(l) ↔H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq) The conjugate acid-base pairs for this equation are H2O (acid) and OH-(base) H3O+(acid) and H2O (base) The Ion Product of WaterIn the study of acid-base reactions, the concentration of hydrogen ion (hydronium) is the key: it’s value indicates the acidity or basicity of the solution. Only a very small fraction of water molecules are ionized, and therefore [H2O] remains virtually unchanged.
has intentionally blurred sections.
Sign up to view the full version.