Reading Study Guide

Reading Study Guide - Courtney Sandlin COMM 203 2.6.10...

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Unformatted text preview: Courtney Sandlin COMM 203 2.6.10 Reading Study Guide Midterm #1 Sparks 1 o 3 ways of knowing Experience empiricism Reliable path to knowledge Personal experience Conclusion from personal experience is it is valid for oneself but not for others Violent media might not trigger aggressive behavior for one individual does not necessarily imply that media violence functions the same way for everyone Ones impression about being invulnerable to media impact is incorrect Effects of media violence are difficult for people to detect in themselves (even though the effects are present) Authority Blind allegiance to authority can have debilitating effects on our search for reliable knowledge Transfer authority to an area that is unrelated to their area of expertise risky Science Systematic observation vs. casual observation Combines empiricism with logical though Always pressing onward toward greater precision of observation Most powerful way of knowing that humans have at their disposal Understand scientific method o 4 goals of science Prediction Foretelling the future Explanation Knowing WHY something happens the way it does Places the phenomenon to be explained into a broader framework or pattern that doesnt really require much additional elaboration Can continually be scrutinized and pressed until more detail emerges that seems more satisfying Understanding Has to do with knowing the particular sequence of casual events that unfold in a given phenomenon of interest Explanation that yields a high level of understanding how the light switch turns on o Ordered causal chain of events (begin with flick of switch end with illumination of the bulb) Good explanations provide understanding Explanation and Understanding are closely related and usually go together Control Given more control when scientists can accurately predict, explain, and understand a phenomenon Just as in a tornado prediction, an increase in the ability to predict and understand a given media effect results in greater control Scientists usually hesitate to become identified too closely with a particular policy More comfortable pointing out the range of control strategies that are available as a result of the increased ability to predict, explain, and understand a given phenomenon o Attributes of theory Generates experiments, testing, data analysis, etc....
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2011 for the course COMM 203 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '06 term at USC.

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Reading Study Guide - Courtney Sandlin COMM 203 2.6.10...

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