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acids bases and solubity memorize

acids bases and solubity memorize - Wesolowski Some things...

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Unformatted text preview: Wesolowski Some things to know—{memorize ~— ugh)—the vocabulary words of Chemistry Strong Acids (mostly made by burning a non~metal element to make an oxide which is dissolved and reacted with water. 88 +12 02 -—)8$03 $03 + H20 ~+H2$O4 HCl hydrochloric acid and the halogen acids HBr, HI, but not HF H2804 sulfuric acid HNO3 = nitric acid HC104 perchloric acid Moderately strong acid H3PO4 phosphoric acid Weak/lads H2CO3 carbonic acid CH3COOH acetic acid (vinegar in dilute solutions) and all carbon based acids ( R-COOH the COOH is the organic acid group, R is H or any carbon based group) H28 hydrogen sulfide (officially named hydrosulfilric acid but no one uses this) HF hydrofluoric acid ( does not break up but forms chains so few H+°s are free) Know how acid strength changes as oxygens are added or removed and the new names —— see naming handout. You only need to memorize five oxyacid names. Strong Bases (mostly made by burning a metallic element to make an oxide which is dissolved and reacted with water. 4N0! + 02 ~92Na20 Na20 + H20 —+2NaOH NaOI-I sodium hydroxide and all the Group I bases KOH, LiOH etc. Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide (not very soluble so some call this weak) Weak Bases NH4OH ammonium hydroxide NH3 ammonia (removes an H+ fi'om water leaving OH~) Rough Solubility Rules ( very general) Soluble — will stay in solution in water or about 0.1M K”, Na 1+ and NEE-41+ compounds -— all soluble and completely dissociate to ions - - - + C11 ’ Br1 11 compounds -- except Agl , Hg22+ and Pb2+ - 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ F1 compounds—except Mg , Ca , Sr , Ba , Pb2+ 2- 2+ 2+ 2+ 804 compounds — except Sr ’ Ba ’ All N03i- nitrate 0031- chlorate C1041- perchlorates CH3C002L acetates Insoluble—will form a solid compound in water at about 0.1M All CO3} carbonate ( in many rocks like limestone) P043- phosphate (rocks again) _ (3204?" oxalate (kidney stones) Cr042- chromate (bridge paint) : sz' sulfide (in fools” gold) on" hydroxide (most metals) {)2- oxide (most metals) 1 EXCEPT all of the above ARE soluble if combined with Na”’ LiH’ K + and N114“— See naming system for nomenclature of inorganic compounds. ...
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