Chem 151 Study Guide Exam 1

Chem 151 Study Guide Exam 1 - Chem 151 Study Guide Exam 1...

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Chem 151 Study Guide: Exam 1 There are certain basic facts, manipulations, tools that everyone should be able to do. Here’s a list but, as always, it may not include everything, but it’s a great foundation. Week 1 Properties of materials Big picture: The three central goals of chemists were introduced: analysis, synthesis, and modeling. The main objective is to introduce differentiating characteristics as properties of matter that allow for separation of complex mixtures. Using these differentiating characteristics chemists are able to analyze, detect, identify, and quantify the components that make up any given system. This allows us to begin to understand the macroscopic world we live in. Phase properties were introduced and discussed as useful because they can be measured and induced by changing temperature and pressure. Be able to: 1) Classify any property as intensive or extensive 2) Classify any property as qualitative or quantitative 3) Create new intensive properties by dividing one extensive by another ( D = m/V) 4) Use intensive properties to identify materials 5) Identify the differentiating characteristic and separation process for a) Filtration (particle size) b) Distillation ( difference in boiling point) c) Extraction ( difference is solubility) d) Chromatography ( difference in affinity for the stationary and mobile phase) 6) Thermal analysis is adding energy and watching the changes that occur 7) Spectroscopy is adding energy and looking at the light energy emitted (fireworks give off characteristic colors – sodium orange, strontium red, barium green, copper green) 8) When any phase change occurs (melting, boiling, subliming, condensing, and freezing) the temperature remains constant until the process is complete.
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9) Interpret a phase diagram for a substance you have not seen before. Where are solids, liquids, and gases? Where are the melting and boiling points? How do they change with pressure? What is a triple point? 10) Identify physical processes vs. chemical processes Things to understand: 1) Chemists think at three levels – the macroscopic (salt is crystalline and white) , the microscopic (salt is made up of tiny charged particles of sodium and chlorine ) and the symbolic (salt is NaCl) 2) Drawing pictures of things at the microscopic level can help you understand why materials behave in certain ways 3) All material things are made of particles in constant motion, what consequence(s) does that have?
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