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Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - IntrotoMotivation 01:52...

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Intro to Motivation 01:52 Motivation -a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. In attempt to  understand motivated behaviors- used four perspectives: Instinct theory/evolutionary perspective - focuses on genetically predisposed  behaviors Drive-reduction theory - focuses on how our inner pushes and external pulls  interact Arousal theory - focuses on finding the right level of stimulation Hierarchy of needs - describes how some of our needs take priority over  others Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology Influence of evolutionary theory grew, it became fashionable to classify all  sorts of behaviors as instincts. o “Self-abasement instinct”-  people criticized themselves o “Self-assertion instinct”-  people boasted Instinct - complex behavior must have a fixed pattern throughout a species  and be unlearned o Newly hatched ducks- first moving object seen is “mother” o Mature salmon- return to place born to mate and die o Infants- innate reflexes for rooting and sucking View human behavior as directed by physiological needs and psychological  wants Explanation for our human similarities, animal’s biological predispositions to  learn certain behaviors, influence of evolution on our phobias, our helping  behaviors, and our romantic attractions. Drives and Incentives Original instinct theory collapsed and was replaced by  Drive-reduction  theory – idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives  the organism to reduce the need. When physiological need increases  psychological drive (aroused, motivated  state) also increases. Physiological aim (push) is  homeostasis – maintenance of a steady internal  state. i.e. body’s temperature-regulation system. “Pulled” by  incentives – positive/negative stimuli that lure/repel us.
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Aroma of good food or sight of those attractive or threatening can motivate  our behavior. Food deprived person smells bread, feels a strong hunger drive. That drive  becomes a compelling incentive. For each motive ask, “How is it pushed by our inborn physiological needs and  pulled by incentives in the environment?” Need  (food)   Drive  (hunger)   Drive-reducing behavior (eating) Optimum Arousal Some motivated behaviors increase arousal. (curiosity drives) Those who enjoy high arousal are more likely to enjoy intense music, novel  foods, and risky behaviors. Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but seek optimum levels of 
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  • Fall '10
  • Sexual arousal, physiological arousal, physiological arousal precede, high arousal, Arousal fuels emotion, precedes physiological arousal

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Final Exam Study Guide - IntrotoMotivation 01:52...

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