Proprioception part1

Proprioception part1 - Proprioception Touch and Vision Part...

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Proprioception, Touch, and Vision: Part 1 I. Proprioception, Touch, & Vision a. Sensory information is essential for all theories of motor control and learning i. Information before the movement ii. Information during the movement iii. Information after the movement b. Focus in this book is on three types: i. Touch ii. Proprioception iii. Vision II. Touch and Motor Control a. Neural basis of touch i. Skin receptors give information 1. Greatest concentration in fingertips 2. Tactile receptors 3. Pain receptors 4. Temperature receptors 5. Pressure receptors ii. Mechanoreceptors 1. Mechanical pressure and distortion III. Touch and Motor Control a. Role of tactile information i. Movement accuracy ii. Movement consistency iii. Movement force adjustments iv. Movement distance estimation IV. Proprioception and Motor Control a. Proprioception: The sensory system’s detection and reception of movement and spatial position of limbs, trunk, and head
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b. CNS receives information from proprioceptors. V. Proprioception and Motor Control a. Proprioceptors i. Muscles ii. Tendons iii. Ligaments iv. Joints b. Types of proprioceptors i. Muscle spindles ii. Golgi-tendon organs iii. Joint receptors VI. Proprioception and Motor Control a. Muscle spindles i. Within fibers of most skeletal muscles ii. Mechanoreceptors iii. Detects changes in muscle fiber length (stretch) and velocity (velocity of the stretch) iv. Involved with reflexes v. Involved in voluntary movements b. Golgi-Tendon Organs (GTO) i. In skeletal muscle near insertion of tendon ii. Detects changes in muscle tension (force) 1. Not very good in detecting muscle length changes 2.
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c. Joint receptors i. Not one type, but several ii. In joint capsule and ligaments iii. Changes in force and rotation iv. Changes in joint movement angle VII. Proprioception and Motor Control a. What is the role of proprioception in motor control? i. To answer this question, researchers have investigated the following question: 1. What are coordinated movements like when skills are performed without proprioception? VIII. Proprioception and deafferentation a. Deafferentation techniques i. Surgical deafferentation 1. Afferent neutral pathways associated with movements of interest have been surgically removed or altered ii. Deafferentation due to sensory neuropathy 1. Sometimes called “peripheral neuropathy” 2. Large myelinated fibers of the limb are lost, leading to a loss of sensory information iii. Temporary deafferentation 1. “Nerve block technique” – Inflate blood-pressure cuff to create temporary disuse of sensory nerves IX. Proprioception altered a. Tendon vibration technique i. High speed vibration of the tendon of the agonist muscle ii. Proprioceptive feedback is distorted iii.
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X. Proprioceptive feedback and movement control a. Proprioceptive feedback: i. Movement accuracy 1. Target accuracy 2. Spatial and temporal accuracy for movement in progress b. Timing of onset of motor commands c. Coordination i. Postural control ii. Spatial-temporal coupling between limbs and limb segments iii. Adapting to new situations requiring non-preferred movement coordination patterns
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