Final exam

Final exam - The three people to remember Schmidt H icks...

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*The three people to remember: Schmidt, Hicks and Fitts* Chapter Sixteen: Practice Variability and Specificity Practice Variability : Refers to the variety of movement and context characteristics the learner experiences while practicing a skill. o Important for both: Dynamic Systems Theory: Stress the learner’s need to explore the perceptual motor workspace and to discover optimal solutions to the degrees- of-freedom problem posed by the skill. Schema Theory (GMP): Schmidt’s (1975); a key prediction is that successful future performance of a skill depends on the amount of variability the learner experiences during practice. Gentile’s learning stages model: (1972, 2000) emphasizes the learner’s need during practice to experience variations of regulatory and nonregulatory context characteristics. o Variability of practice experiences is important for learning motor skills. o Movement and context features (characteristics) that can be varied in practice Skill variations that will be required in “test” condition Physical context in which the skill is performed Situations in which the skill occurs o Benefits for Future Performance Practice can be seen as a means of enhancing positive transfer from the practice to the test contexts. Practice variability is better for learning and performance on future ‘test’ situations Constant versus Variable Practice o Compare the effects on retention or transfer test performance of situations involving: one variation of a skill (i.e. constant practice) vs. several variations of a skill (i.e. variable practice) o Research has shown that more variability is better than less variability o Benefits for Future Performance Performance errors are beneficial for learning Increased amount of practice variability is associated with an increased amount of performance error during practice o What are the characteristics of the physical context and skill features of the performance o Different skills require different features to be varied
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Practice conditions o Varying practice contexts Regulatory conditions (person walking)- walk on concrete sidewalk, walk on ice or sand, busy, cluttered sidewalk, empty sidewalk Important that practice conditions include a variety of similar conditions Non-regulatory conditions (walking)- physical environment around the walking pathway (buildings, trees, and open space)- can influence the degree of success a person may achieve in carrying out the action in a unique context. o Open versus closed skills o Closed skills Intertrial variability: An environmental context characteristic in Gentile’s taxonomy of motor skills. Whether regulatory conditions that exist for the performance of a skill in one situation or for one trial are present or absent in the next situation or trial. 1
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2011 for the course KIN 3513 taught by Professor Porter during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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Final exam - The three people to remember Schmidt H icks...

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