Test 4

# Test 4 - Test 4 Practice Variability and Specificity...

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Test 4 Practice Variability and Specificity Practice General Principle The more the practice conditions and the test conditions have in common, the better test performance will be Practice Constant Practice: a practice sequence in which people rehearse only one variation of a given class of tasks during a session Varied Practice: a practice sequence in which performers rehearse a number of variations of a class of given tasks during a session Practice Variability Refers to the variety of movement and context characteristics the learner experiences while practicing a skill Important for both: Dynamic Systems Theory: you use the environment and explore diff movement characteristics you use to make a stable coordination dynamic Schema Theory: GMP; we need to make an abstract plan, try to figure out which plan works better And Gentile’s learning stages model: what are the regulatory conditions? Conditions that constrain your movement. Variability of practice experiences is important for learning motor skills Movement and context features (characteristics) that can be varied in practice: Skill variations that will be required in “test” condition Physical context in which the skill is performed (practice at diff times so you are used to different lighting conditions) Situations in which the skill occurs Benefits for Future Performance Practice variability is better for learning and performance on future test situations Constant vs. variable practice One variation of a skill vs several variations of a skill Research has shown that more variability is better than less variability Performance errors are beneficial for learning Increased amount of practice variability is associated with an increased amount of performance error during practice How to vary the following Kicking a field goal in football? Physical context example: Day/Night, Rain/Sunshine Skill variation example: right/left foot Situation example: beginning/end of game

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Studying for an exam Physical context: silent/noise, PC/paper Skill variation: Recognition/Recall Situation: Cramming/Weeks in advance Learning to Drive a car Physical context: other cars/open field, sunshine/rain Skill variation: automatic/manual Situation: interstate/in town, on/off phone Characteristics of Physical Context and Skill features of the performance Different skills require different features to be varied Practice conditions Open vs closed skills Closed skills: intertrial variability (golf: using different iron) Washing dishes: different dishes Folding clothes: different clothes Turning the pages in a book: outside/inside different book Shooting at stationary target: size of target, outside/inside, lighting Performing a cartwheel: surface Open skills: skill variability Spiking a volleyball: set up from left/right
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Test 4 - Test 4 Practice Variability and Specificity...

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