Ch_21 - Chapter 21 Nutrition Digestion Overview Obtaining...

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Chapter 21 Nutrition & Digestion Overview: Obtaining and processing food Human Digestive System Diets Nutrition
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Animals obtain and process nutrients in a variety of ways Humpback whales eat small fishes and crustaceans called krill This painting shows how the whales corral their food using “bubble nets” Getting Their Fill of Krill
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Humpback whales strain their food from seawater using large, brushlike plates called baleen When they feed, they take in large amounts of seawater in which the fish and krill live They must filter out the water in order to get a meal
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In a typical day, a humpback whale’s digestive system will process as much as 2 tons of fish and krill They store the excess energy they harvest in the form of blubber In about 4 months, a humpback whale eats, digests, and stores as fat enough food for an entire year
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Animal diets are highly varied Herbivores are plant-eaters Carnivores are meat-eaters Omnivores eat both plants and other animals Animals ingest their food in a variety of ways OBTAINING AND PROCESSING FOOD
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Omnivores Ingest both plants and animals
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Some animals are suspension feeders, consuming particles from water Herbivores Feed mainly on plants
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Carnivores Mainly eat animals that eat plants
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Some are fluid feeders, sucking liquids
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Ingestion The Four Stages of Food Processing Is another word for eating Digestion Is the breakdown of food to small molecules Absorption Is the uptake of the small nutrient molecules by the body’s cells Elimination Is the disposal of undigested materials from the food we eat
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Mechanical digestion Digestion: A Closer Look Begins the process Involves physical processes like chewing Chemical digestion Is the breakdown of food by digestive enzymes
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Chemical digestion Proceeds through hydrolysis reactions Hydrolases Are enzymes that catalyze digestive hydrolysis reactions
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In animals, chemical digestion is contained safely within some kind of compartment Digestive Compartments Food is digested in compartments housing hydrolytic enzymes Most animals have a specialized digestive tract
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Relatively simple animals have a sac with a single opening This is called a gastrovascular cavity Example: hydra
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