lecture 12 reading---Wheeler,+2009+_Cntr+Glob+Dev_

lecture 12 reading---Wheeler,+2009+_Cntr+Glob+Dev_ - The...

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Unformatted text preview: The Economics of Population Policy For Carbon Emissions Reduction In Developing Countries David Wheeler Dan Hammer Center for Global Development August, 2009 Our thanks to Nancy Birdsall, Peter Belden, Bob Engelman, Rachel Nugent, Ron Ridker and Tim Wirth for valuable comments and suggestions. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation for this research. All remaining errors are our own. Abstract Female education and family planning are both critical for sustainable development, and they obviously merit expanded support without any appeal to global climate considerations. However, even relatively optimistic projections suggest that family planning and female education will suffer from financing deficits that will leave millions of women unserved in the coming decades. Since both activities affect fertility, population growth and carbon emissions, they may also provide sufficient climate-related benefits to warrant additional financing from resources devoted to carbon emissions abatement. This paper considers the economic case for such support. Using recent data on emissions, program effectiveness and program costs, we estimate the cost of carbon emissions abatement via family planning and female education. We compare our estimates with the costs of numerous technical abatement options that have been estimated by Nauclr and Enkvist in a major study for McKinsey and Company (2009). We find that the population policy options are much less costly than almost all of the Nauclr and Enkvist options for low-carbon energy development, including solar, wind and nuclear power, second-generation biofuels and carbon capture and storage. They are also cost-competitive with forest conservation and other improvements in forestry and agricultural practices. We conclude that female education and family planning should be viewed as viable potential candidates for financial support from global climate funds. The case for female education is also strengthened by its documented contribution to resilience in the face of the climate change that has already become inevitable. 2 1. Introduction Extensive empirical research has shown that social and economic development are promoted by investments in family planning and female education (King and Mason, 2001). Multilateral and bilateral donors finance these investments on their own merits, and no further rationale is needed. However, donor resources remain scarce, and few would argue that the current level of support for family planning and female education is adequate. Female education provides a compelling case in point: The worlds poorest regions are far from universal primary education for females, and secondary participation rates are often abysmal....
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lecture 12 reading---Wheeler,+2009+_Cntr+Glob+Dev_ - The...

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