Chapter13 - Department of Agricultural and Resource...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics EEP 101 School of Public Policy David Zilberman University of California at Berkeley Lecture 13 ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH RISKS OF PESTICIDES Topics Health Risks and Environmental Effects of Pesticide Use Examples What Are Pesticides Their Benefits What’s Wrong Pesticide-Use Strategies Pesticides in Developing Countries Pesticides Regulations and Policies Major Issues of Debate -Should They Be Banned -International Harmonization of Pesticides Health Risks and Environmental Effects of Pesticide Use Health risk is defined as the probability that an individual selected randomly from a population contracts adverse health effects (mortality or morbidity) from a substance. We can distinguish between an individual risk and a group health risk. Risk assessment is a technique to assess health risk and to form policies. The health risk-generating process contains several stages. In the case of pesticides, we consider three stages: (1) Contamination and movement (2) Exposure (3) Dose/response
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 Contamination is the result of pesticide application. The chemicals are spread through the air and water and become absorbed by the product. Exposure may result from many activities: • Exposure may be from eating, breathing, and touching. • For food safety, the exposure is to the consumer. • For worker safety, the exposure is to the applicator, mixer, and factory worker. • For ground water, exposure is to whoever drinks and bathes in the water • For environmental risk, exposure is to the species that are exposed to the risk. The dose-response relationship translates exposure to probability of contracting certain diseases. We should distinguish between acute and chronic risks. • Acute risks are immediate risks of poisoning. • Chronic risks are risks that may depend on accumulated exposure and which may take time to manifest themselves, for example, cancer. Risk Assessment Models The processes that determine contamination, exposure, and the dose/response relationship are often characterized by heterogeneity, uncertainty, and random phenomena (weather). Thus, contamination, exposure, and the dose/response relationship often exhibit the characteristics of random variables. Random variables are variables, which can take on several values, depending on the outcome of some random process, or
Image of page 2
3 depending on the outcome of some process which is so complicated that outcomes appear random. When modeling random variables, we often work with models that contain probabilities. For example, risk assessment models estimate health risks associated with pesticide application by making use of estimated probabilities. A risk-assessment model: Let r = represent individual health risk r f B f B f B X = 3 3 2 2 1 1 ( ) ( ) ( , ) where X = pollution on site (i.e., the level of pesticide use) B 1 = damage control activity at the site (i.e., protective clothing; re- entry rules) B 2 = averting behavior of individuals (i.e., washing fruits and vegetables) B 3 = the medical control of pollution dosage.
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern