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EBMUD+residential_indoor_wc_study

EBMUD+residential_indoor_wc_study - RESIDENTIAL INDOOR...

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RESIDENTIAL INDOOR WATER CONSERVATION STUDY: EVALUATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY INDOOR PLUMBING FIXTURE RETROFITS IN SINGLE-FAMILY HOMES IN THE EAST BAY MUNICIPAL UTILITY DISTRICT SERVICE AREA July 2003 Prepared for and submitted to: East Bay Municipal Utility District and The United States Environmental Protection Agency Prepared by: Peter W. Mayer, William B. DeOreo, Erin Towler, and David M. Lewis Aquacraft, Inc. Water Engineering and Management 2709 Pine St. Boulder, Colorado 80302 www.aquacraft.com
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ii DISCLAIMER This report has been funded in part with a grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The views expressed by the authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect those of the EPA. Mention of trade names, products, or services does not convey, and should not be interpreted as conveying, official EPA approval, endorsement, or recommendation.
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iii TABLE OF CONTENTS DISCLAIMER ............................................................................................................................................................ II TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................................................................... III LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................................................... VI LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................................. VII ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................................................................. VIII EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................... IX CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................... 1 SELECTION OF STUDY PARTICIPANTS ........................................................................................................... 2 First Team Meeting .............................................................................................................................................. 2 Study Group Selection .......................................................................................................................................... 3 Invitation Letter ................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Selection of Participants .................................................................................................................................................... 3 DATA MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................................................................... 4 Creation of Retrofit Database .............................................................................................................................. 4 Billing Data .......................................................................................................................................................... 4 INITIAL SITE VISITS ............................................................................................................................................. 4 Visit Protocol ....................................................................................................................................................... 5 Audit Questionnaire .......................................................................................................................................................... 5 Data Logger Installation .................................................................................................................................................... 5 Hot Water Data Collection ................................................................................................................................................ 6 Collection of Fixture Traces .............................................................................................................................................. 6 Participant Agreement ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Audit Data Entry and QA/QC ........................................................................................................................................... 7 Retrieval and Verification of Initial Data ............................................................................................................ 7 Pre-Retrofit Logging Report ................................................................................................................................ 8 Re-Logging Effort ................................................................................................................................................ 8 Pre-Retrofit Flow Trace Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 8 Quality Assurance and Quality Control .......................................................................................................................... 10 PLAN RETROFITS AND INSTALL CONSERVING FIXTURES ...................................................................... 12 Draft Retrofit Plan ............................................................................................................................................. 13 Final Retrofit Plan ............................................................................................................................................ 15 Perform Retrofits ................................................................................................................................................ 16 Validate and Tabulate Retrofits ......................................................................................................................... 16 Audit Installation Quality Assurance and Quality Control .............................................................................................. 16 Post Retrofit Logging Quality Assurance and Quality Control ....................................................................................... 17 CHAPTER 3 BASELINE WATER USE ................................................................................................................. 18 ANNUAL WATER USE ........................................................................................................................................ 18 Seasonal Water Use ........................................................................................................................................... 20 DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION ...................................................................................................................... 21 Number of residents per household .................................................................................................................... 21 Household Information ...................................................................................................................................... 22 Fixture Performance .......................................................................................................................................... 23 END USE DATA ................................................................................................................................................... 25 Daily Household Use ......................................................................................................................................... 25 INDOOR PER CAPITA USE ................................................................................................................................. 27
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iv Mean Per Capita Indoor Use ............................................................................................................................. 28 Baseline Hot Water Usage ................................................................................................................................. 31 Leaks .................................................................................................................................................................. 32 FIXTURE USAGE ................................................................................................................................................. 36 Toilets ................................................................................................................................................................. 36 Showers .............................................................................................................................................................. 38 Clothes Washers ................................................................................................................................................. 41 Dishwashers ....................................................................................................................................................... 43 Faucets ............................................................................................................................................................... 43 Baths .................................................................................................................................................................. 44 MAXIMUM DAY DEMANDS ............................................................................................................................. 44 CHAPTER 4 POST-RETROFIT RESULTS .......................................................................................................... 47 COMPARISON OF WATER USE DURING LOGGING PERIODS ................................................................... 47 Demographic Information .................................................................................................................................. 48 DAILY HOUSEHOLD USE .................................................................................................................................. 49 INDOOR PER CAPITA USE ................................................................................................................................. 50 Post-Retrofit Hot Water Usage .......................................................................................................................... 53 Analysis of Water Savings Excluding Leaks ....................................................................................................... 55 FIXTURE USAGE ................................................................................................................................................. 56 Toilets ................................................................................................................................................................. 56 Flushes per capita per day ............................................................................................................................................... 58 Impact of Toilet Make and Model ................................................................................................................................... 59 ULF Toilet Savings from Other Studies .......................................................................................................................... 62 Showers .............................................................................................................................................................. 63 LF Shower Savings from Other Studies .......................................................................................................................... 67 Clothes Washers ................................................................................................................................................. 68 Clothes washer Savings Found in Other Studies ............................................................................................................. 73 Faucets ............................................................................................................................................................... 74 Baths .................................................................................................................................................................. 76 Leaks .................................................................................................................................................................. 76 MAXIMUM DAY INDOOR DEMANDS ............................................................................................................. 78 BILLING DATA ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................ 80 CHAPTER 5 NEW FIXTURE SATISFACTION RATINGS ............................................................................... 84 RESULTS ............................................................................................................................................................... 84 Toilets ................................................................................................................................................................. 84 Niagara vs. Caroma ......................................................................................................................................................... 86 Clothes Washers ................................................................................................................................................. 87 Clothes washer ratings by brand ..................................................................................................................................... 89 Showerheads ...................................................................................................................................................... 89 Faucet Aerators ................................................................................................................................................. 90 Study Participation ............................................................................................................................................ 91
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