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4 Perceiving Persons

4 Perceiving Persons - Social Psychology 4 Perceiving...

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4.1 Observation Phrenology (Franz Gall, 1820): [unscientific] recognizing personality / abilities by skull shape Script : Predefined sequence of events for common situations (such as a restaurant dinner) Behavioural Observation: stream of behaviour is divided into "meaning units", these chunks are then abstracted and "reasonably" connected facial expression is valid worldwide via 6 primary categories if an ambiguitive [nonverbal] expression is presented, people judge by context (“lottery winning” or “dog threat” context leads to “happy” or “fearful” ratings, with the same picture) lie detection: usually people pay too much attention to the face - body posture and voice cues are more revealing 4.2 Attribution ~ is the process by which we explain people's behaviour Theories Kelly's Covariation Theory : consensus (do other people think so, too?) distinctiveness (does he think so of many other events, too?) consistency (does he always think so of this event?) -> decision possible: is this behaviour based on personal or situational attributions?
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