5 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

5 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination - Social...

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Social Psychology Chapter V : Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination Group Two or more persons perceived as related because of their interactions with each other over time, membership in the same social category, or common fate. Stereotype a belief that associates a group of people with certain traits. Prejudice negative feelings toward persons based on their membership in certain groups. Discrimination negative behavior directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group. Stereotypes: How stereotypes form: Two processes: 1) categorization ; we sort people into groups. 2) we perceive groups in which we belong ( ingroups ) as being different from groups in which we do not belong ( outgroups ). Processes are influenced by sociocultural and motivational factors, as well as by differences in individuals´ theories about groups. Social Categorization: ~ the classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes. Ingroups versus Outgroups: Ingroups groups with which an individual feels a sense of membership, belonging, and identity. Outgroups groups with which an individual does not feel a sense of membership belonging, or identity. Outgroup homogenity effect the tendency to assume that there is a greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of ingroups. Two reasons: 1) We often do not notice subtle differences among outgroups because we have little personal contact with them. 2) People often do not encounter a representative sample of outgroup members. Sociocultural and Motivational Factors: Cultures differ in what categorization they emphasize and how they make ingroup-outgroup distinctions. Motivational factors also affect how people categorize others. Page 137 – 138 Implicit Personality Theories About Groups: Entity theorists people who tend to see social groups as relatively fixed, static entities and the borders between groups as relatively clear and rigid. Incremental theorists people who tend to see social groups as relatively dynamic and changeable, with less consistency within groups and more malleability between groups. Are Stereotypes Ever Accurate?: Page 139 – 140 How Stereotypes Survive and Self-Perpetuate: They offer us quick and convenient summaries of social groups. They often cause us to overlook the diversity within categories and form mistaken impressions of specific individuals.
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Illusory Correlations: ~ an overestimate of the association between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated. Causes are the overestimation from correlations by:
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course PSYCH 212 taught by Professor Dansullivan during the Spring '11 term at NYU.

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5 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination - Social...

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