Ch 3 Notes

Ch 3 Notes - Social Psyc- CHAPTER 3 William Thompson had...

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Social Psyc- CHAPTER 3 William Thompson – had multiple personalities - unable to contemplate his own actions, Thompson appeared vacant and without feeling - Thompson seemed compelled to put on a face for others and to improvise characters for the company he kept The self-concept - the “cocktail party effect” – the tendency of people to pick a personally relevant stimulus out of a complex environment o ex: not paying attention at a party until you hear your name shows that people are selective in their attention shows that the self is an important object of our own attention - self-concept refers to the sum total of beliefs that people have about themselves - Hazel Markus (1977) – the self-concept is made up of cognitive molecules called self-schemas , which are beliefs about oneself that guide the processing of self- relevant info o Like files in your brain - when something in particular to a person (ex: their weight), their considered body-weight schematics - when something like weight isn’t important to a person, they’re aschematic on that subject Beginning of the Self-concept - dogs and cats don’t recognize themselves when looking in the mirror - only humans and great apes are capable of detecting their own reflection o Gordon Gallup (1977) proved this in a study - even young great apes are capable of detecting themselves in a mirror - human infants begin to recognize themselves in the mirror between 18 months – 24 months o begin to understand/realize the concept “me” - ability to see yourself as a distinct entity is a necessary first step in the evolution and development of a self-concept - Charles Horton Cooley (1902) – introduced the term looking-glass self to suggest that other people serve as a mirror in which we see ourselves o George Herbert Mead (1934) added that we often come to know ourselves by imagining what significant others think of us and then adding these perceptions into our self-concepts - Susan Anderson & Serena Chen (2002) said that the self is “relational”- that we have to draw our sense of who we are from our past and current relationships with the significant others in our lives - during Gallup’s experiment, the apes that were raised in isolation didn’t recognize themselves in the mirror
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- human’s self-concepts match our perceptions of what others think of us, but what we think of ourselves often doesn’t match what specific others actually think of us Introspection - self knowledge is gained from introspection, looking at one’s own thoughts and feelings - no one knows you better than yourself - Richard Nisbett and Timothy Wilson (1977) found that research participants often cant accurately explain the causes or correlates of their own behaviour - Introspection can sometimes damage self-knowledge - Humans keep mentally busy processing info, which is why we often fail to understand our own thoughts, feelings, and behaviours - Affective forecasting – the difficulty in projecting forward and predicting how
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Ch 3 Notes - Social Psyc- CHAPTER 3 William Thompson had...

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