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Ch 5 Notes - PSYC 215 Chapter 5 Stereotypes Prejudice and...

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PSYC 215 Chapter 5 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination STEREOTYPES Group: two or more people perceived as having at least one of the following characteristic: 1) direct interactions with each other over a period of time 2) joint membership in a social category based on sex, race, or other attributes 3) a shared, common fate, identity, or set of goals. Stereotypes: a belief that associates a group of people with certain traits. Prejudice: negative feelings toward persons based on their membership in certain groups. Discrimination: negative behavior directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group. HOW STEREOTYPES FORM Origin of stereotypes can be seen from different perspectives: 1. Historical perspective Stereotypes derived from past events. E.g.: slavery in America gave rise o the portrayal of Blacks inferior. 2. Political perspective Stereotypes viewed as a means by which group in power rationalize war, religious intolerance, and economic oppression. 3. Sociocultural perspective Real differences between social groups contribute to perceived differences. The formation of stereotypes Involved two processes categorization + ingroups vs. outgroups influenced by sociocultural and motivational factors + implicit theories about groups 1. Social Categorization o People sort each other into groups on the basis of gender, race, and other common attributes.
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o We form impression quickly and use past experience to guide new interaction; save time and effort to group people and make interferences about them. o Drawbacks: oranges and apple categorized as fruit; categorizing people leads to overestimate differences between group and underestimate differences within groups. 2. Ingroups vs. Outgroups (“us” vs “them”) o Perceivers are member or nonmembers of different categories. o Ingroups : groups that you identity with – your country, religion, political party, or hometown sport team. o Outgroups: group other than your own. o Consequences: 1. We exaggerate the differences between our ingroups and others outgroups. 2. Outgroup homogeneity effect > perceivers assume that there is a greater similarity among members of outgroups than among members of one’s own group. E.g: Korean, Chinese, Taiwanese see themselves different but to Westerner they are all Asians. o Two reasons people perceive outgroups as homogeneous are there is too little contact with the outgroups and samples are not representative. 3. Sociocultural and Motivational Factors o How the media portrays various groups and how parents, peers, and schools promote particular ways of dividing people. E.g.: parents restrict their children to play with certain race. o Individuals’ racial prejudices affected by the people around them.
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