An_introduction_to_predation_in_organisms

An_introduction_to_predation_in_organisms - 1 An...

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1 An introduction to predation in organisms Ashraf M. T. Elewa Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Egypt, [email protected] Predation is considered as one of the distinct phenomena related to relations between species to each other on the Earth. According to the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, predation is an interaction between organisms (animals) in which one organism captures and feeds upon another called the prey. Some others consider predation as an interaction between two species in which one of them gains and the other loses. As to me, I define predation as a phenomenon of “Antagonism”. There are several predators living on the Earth, ranging in size from micro-creatures, like ostracods, to big mammals like lions and tigers. Of course, we, humans, think of these big cats as well as reptiles, like crocodiles and snakes, as typical predators. However, spiders, centipedes, most lizards and turtles, and frogs are also voracious predators, some of them are dangerous to humans (see the Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predation). In general, predation is widespread not only in wildlife but also in marine environments where big fishes eat small fishes and other small organisms of the sea. Anyhow, some important questions arise to mind when discussing this subject: what is behind predation? Why some predators do not benefit from their prey after killing them? Are there genetic origins of this antagonism between organisms? Why some female organisms kill their males after completion of sex? How can we avoid predation? We, editor and contributors, tried to answer these questions through the study of many aspects of predation as well as some relations between species to each other. In the following I am presenting a summary of the most important books on predation in the last forty years. Since 1969, when James Frederick Clarke published his book “Man is the prey”, predation has taken a substantial consideration by many scientists on different groups of organisms. Chimpanzees (Teleki 1973), arthropods (Hassell 1978), fishes (Noakes 1983), red foxes and breeding ducks (Sargeant et al. 1984), coyote (Leydet 1988), wolves and black- tailed deers (Atkinson and Janz 1994), reptiles (Cloudsley-Thompson
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2 Ashraf M. T. Elewa 1994), fish-eating birds (Russell 1996), chimpanzee and red colobus (Stanford 1998), ladybird beetles (Dixon 2000), barn owls (Taylor 2004). However, the book by Michael Bright (2002) on the “Man-eaters” is the most interesting to read. This book describes horrifying true stories of savage, flesh-eating predators and their human prey. Nonetheless, this book is mentioning just stories about predators of human without discussing scientific hypotheses related to this phenomenon. Geza Teleki has spent two years observing wild chimpanzees at very
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 4000 taught by Professor Moodle during the Spring '00 term at York University.

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An_introduction_to_predation_in_organisms - 1 An...

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