BIOL 140 Lectures 1-12 Summaries

BIOL 140 Lectures 1-12 Summaries - Lecture 1. In this...

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Lecture 1. In this course, you will be introduced to the hidden world of microorganisms, learn how these organisms are studied, and become aware of the position, role and importance of microorganisms in the world. Microbiology is a science that is not much more than a century old. It is thus a young, vigorous and modern science. Microbiology has had profound influence on almost every sector of human interest: health, agriculture, food, environment. It has given rise to molecular biology and biotechnology. Even if you do not plan to specialize in microbiology, it is important to develop an understanding of microbiology and the power of the microbe. While one of the most important drivers for the development of the science of microbiology was the recognition that many diseases are caused by microorganisms, in reality, only a very small fraction of microorganisms cause diseases. In fact, for most of the time that microorganisms have existed on earth, there were no multicellular organisms available to infect. The physiological activities of microorganisms resulted in the formation of a biosphere that allowed some of them to evolve into multicellular organisms. Even today, microorganisms comprise >50% of the earthâs biomass. Most of these microorganisms are "friendly". Microorganisms have been very important as model systems in the study of biochemistry and genetics. Most of the fundamental biochemical and genetic principles of life were developed through the study of microorganisms. Microbial cells can be cultured to high densities in the laboratory, facilitating biochemical analysis, and they are easy to manipulate genetically. Although microbial cells do not differentiate into distinct tissues, as multicellular organisms do, they do associate with other similar cells as populations. These populations associate with other populations in communities. Interactions within microbial communities occur at several levels, with waste products of some organisms provided as nutrient for other organisms. In the process, the properties of a given ecosystem are often altered. Microorganisms have fascinated me since I was first introduced to their world as an undergraduate student. I am looking forward to sharing some of the wonders of this world with you. I hope that you enjoy the course. Lecture 2 Learning Objectives: An introduction to (1) the historical origins of microbiology; (2) the concepts of cell structure and function (3) the concept of microbial diversity. Make sure to understand the following: Pasteur's experimental disproof of spontaneous generation . -see Figure 1.11 Koch's postulates. -see Figure 1.12 All living organisms, except viruses, are made up of cells (see Figure 2.1 ). Each cell is surrounded by a cell membrane , which separates the outside of the cell from the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that they contain membrane enclosed structures ( organelles ). These include
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course BIOL 140 taught by Professor Dr.joshneufeld during the Spring '10 term at Waterloo.

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BIOL 140 Lectures 1-12 Summaries - Lecture 1. In this...

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