Ch_12-3_Colligative_Properties (2)

Ch_12-3_Colligative_Properties (2) - COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES...

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RATE OF EVAPORATION DECREASES FOR SOLUTION P solv = χ solv solv P =Pº solv - P solv = Pº solv - χ solv solv = (1 – χ solv )Pº solv = χ solute solv COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF GASES Raoult’s Law: Decrease in pressure: Where P solv = Pressure solvent in solution solv = Pressure pure solvent χ solv = mole fraction solvent Equilibrium vapor pressure decreases Boiling point temperature increases
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VAPOR PRESSURE IS LOWERED IN SOLUTIONS Pure benzene χ solv = 0.98 χ solv = 0.96 χ solv = 0.94 χ solv = 0.92 χ solute = 0.02 χ solute = 0.04 χ solute = 0.06 χ solute = 0.08
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BOILING POINT INCREASES IN SOLUTIONS
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BOILING POINT INCREASES IN SOLUTIONS T b = mk b m = molality (mol solute/kg solvent) T b = boiling point elevation—always positive k b = boiling point elevation constant Example: What is the boiling point of a 0.32 molal solution of iodine (I 2 ) in benzene at one atm? T b = (0.32m)( 2.53ºC/m) = 0.81ºC T = T º + T b = 80.10 + 0.81 = 80.91ºC
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FREEZING POINT DECREASES IN SOLUTIONS h When solution of water freezes it is almost pure ice Sea water—non drinkable Ice from sea water--drinkable
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Ch_12-3_Colligative_Properties (2) - COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES...

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