Ch_13_I_Intro_Kinetics

Ch_13_I_Intro_Kinetics - Part IRates of Chemical Reactions...

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Unformatted text preview: Part IRates of Chemical Reactions Ratehow fast something is changing Rate of change of distance Rate of reactionhow fast a reactant or product is changing with time Factors That Affect Reaction Rates Nature of reactants Concentrations of reactants (M, P, surface area ) Temperature Presence of a catalyst (Part IIMechanisms of Chemical Reactions) speed White phosphorus ignites and burns rapidly when exposed to oxygen in the air, so it is stored under water. NATURE OF REACTANTS Two allotropes of phosphorus. Red phosphorus reacts with air much more slowly, and can be stored in contact with air. Whitten p 617 CONCENTRATION Dilute sulfuric acid Conc. sulfuric acid Whitten p 634 TEMPERATURE 25 C 75 C Antimony powder (Sb) + Br 2 At which temperature is the reaction faster (more vigorous)? Whitten p 642 TEMPERATURE Which egg will cook faster? Boiling water Ice water Reaction rates are always faster at higher temperatures! Whitten p 641 H 2 gas Pt gauze McQuarrie p 547 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(g) HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST HETEROGENEOUS CATALYST Whitten p. 648 H 2 O 2 (aq) H 2 O(l) +O 2 (g) Decomposition catalyzed by small amounts of transition metal oxides x Higher temperature (reaction exothermic) Reaction rate increases: x Catalysis Water boils vigorously Dry NI 3 + mild shock b N 2 +I 2 RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS (Small Activation Energy) RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS (Very Large Activation Energy) [Kept in dry environmentmoisture free] Very slow Oxidation Rates Rusting Rates 2 2 2 3 2Fe 3O Fe O H O + Very slow Slow Oxidation Rates Oxidation Rates Very slow Slow Fast Sparkling ( 29 ( 29 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( ) H O aq H O l O g + Initially all hydrogen peroxide and water ( 29 ( 29 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( ) H O aq H O l O g + Oxygen ( 29 ( 29 2 2 2 2 2 2 ( ) H O aq H O l O g + Rate of reaction monitored by rate of oxygen production ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 2 2 5 2 1 2 Colorless 2 Brow Col les n or s N O g g O g NO + NO 2 ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 2 2 5 2 1 2 Colorless 2 Brow Col les n or s N O g g O g NO + NO 2 ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 2 2 5 2 1 2 Colorless 2 Brow Col les n or s N O g g O g NO + NO 2 ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 2 2 5 2 1 2 Colorless 2 Brow Col les n or s N O g g O g NO + NO 2 ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 2 2 5 2 1 2 Colorless 2 Brow Col les n or s N O g g O g NO + NO 2 ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 2 2 5 2 1 2 Colorless 2 Brow Col les n or s N O g g O g NO + NO 2 ( 29 ( 29...
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Ch_13_I_Intro_Kinetics - Part IRates of Chemical Reactions...

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