Ch_14_I_Equilibirium_Intro (1)

Ch_14_I_Equilibirium_Intro (1) - Chemical Equilibrium The...

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Chemical Equilibrium The Equilibrium Constant The Reaction Quotient Solubility Equilibria Le Chatelier’s Principle Equilibrium Calculations Heterogeneous Equilibria Solubility and the Common Ion Effect K eq Q Predict outcome of stress Different phases E.g., NaCl(s) + H 2 O(l) b Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) E.g., add NaBr(s)
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Chemical Equilibrium Le Chatelier wrote in 1888, “These investigations of a rather theoretical sort are capable of much more immediate practical application than one would be inclined to believe. Indeed the phenomena of chemical equilibrium play a capital role in all the operations of industrial chemistry.” 1 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3CO (g) 2Fe (l) + 3CO 2 (g) waste gases hot air molten iron hot air slag www.bournemouth-school.bournemouth.sch.uk 1 H Le Chatelier, Ann. Mines, (8) 13 , 157 (1888). [Lewis and Randall, Thermodynamics ] raw materials: Fe 2 O 3 , C, CaCO 3 C (s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2CO
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2 NO 2 (g) N 2 O 4 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) N 2 O 4 (g) a (Dimerization) Brown Clear Reger p 585
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2 NO 2 (g) N 2 O 4 (g) a Reger p 585
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2 NO 2 (g) N 2 O 4 (g) a [ ] [ ] ( 29 3 2 4 1 2 2 2 2 4.86 10 45.8 1.03 10 eq N O x M K M NO x M - - - = = = Reger p 585
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[ ] [ ][ ] C A B f eq r k K k = = Let A + B C be an elementary reaction (one step) . At equilibrium: Forward rate = Reverse rate k f [A][B] = k r [C] f eq r k K k = Kinetics and Equilibrium K eq written from balance equation •Rate law determined from experiment K eq multistep reaction related to ratio of rate constants
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Ch_14_I_Equilibirium_Intro (1) - Chemical Equilibrium The...

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