ZieglerLecture14-ETS-OxPhos-Shuttles

ZieglerLecture14-ETS-OxPhos-Shuttles - Lecture 14: Lecture...

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Lecture 14: Lecture 14: Electron Transport, Oxidative Phosphorylation, and Shuttle Systems BIOCHEMISTRY 100 Winter 2011 M. Ziegler
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Learning Objectives Learning Objectives 1. Terminology (explain/define; understand use of terms): reduction potential, proton gradient (“chemical potential”), voltage gradient (electrical potential), P/O ratio, proton-motive force, chemiosmotic coupling, binding change mechanism of ATP synthesis by ATP synthase. 2. Write a half reaction for the reduction of 1 O 2 by electrons (and including protons) to water. How many electrons does it take to reduce one O 2 molecule? 3. Given 2 half reactions, for reduction of 2 different compounds, with their standard reduction potentials, E o ’ (e.g., pyruvate --> lactate, and NAD + --> NADH), predict in which direction the electrons will flow, i.e. which reduced compound will donate electrons to the oxidized compound of the other half reaction under standard conditions. 4. Approximately how many ATPs can be synthesized as a result of electron transport of 2 electrons that enter Complex I through NADH? Approximately how many ATPs can be synthesized as a result of electron transport of 2 electrons that enter Complex II through FADH 2 ? 5. List the 4 protein complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport system, with what compound donates electrons to each complex, and what compound (e.g., a mobile lipid or a mobile protein or O 2 ) accepts the electrons from the complex. (You don’t have to know all the individual carriers within each complex.) What is the ultimate electron acceptor in ETS? 6. Which of the protein complexes pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, and in what direction?
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Learning Objectives Learning Objectives 1. Explain the general idea of chemiosmotic coupling of electron transport to ATP synthesis. 2. Explain how the structure of the F o F 1 ATP synthase can bring about that coupling. Include in your explanation the roles of the F o and F 1 components. 3. What component of the ATP synthase serves as the “rotor”, to drive the machine? 4. What subunit serves as the “bent axle” coupling the rotor to the subunits that condense ADP and P i to make ATP? 5. Explain the “binding change” mechanism (using and defining the terms “O”, “L”, and “T” sites), and explain what triggers the conformational changes from O to L to T in the β subunits of the F 1 component, resulting in each one making an ATP as the rotor turns. 6. Know in what part of the cell each of the pathways occurs (glycolysis, glycogen metabolism, gluconeogenesis, PPP, PDH reaction, TCA cycle, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation. 7. Explain how electrons from NADH made from glycolysis in the cytosol (in what reaction?) get into the mitochondrion to enter electron transport. Name the 2 shuttle systems (you don’t have to write them out in detail), and explain why electrons using one shuttle result in only 1.5 ATP per cytosolic NADH, while the other shuttle system gives 2.5 ATP/NADH.
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course BCH 100 taught by Professor Staff during the Winter '08 term at UC Riverside.

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ZieglerLecture14-ETS-OxPhos-Shuttles - Lecture 14: Lecture...

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