Fall midterm 1 2009 - 1. A hypothesis is testable if a. it...

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1. A hypothesis is testable if a. it can be confirmed. b. it can be disconfirmed. * c. it is sufficiently vague. d. virtually any set of circumstances could support it. 66% of the class got this item correct, item-to-total r pb = .36. Technically, scientists are supposed to look for evidence that would disconfirm their hypothesis, not confirm it. At the very least, they ought to be at least as interested in findings that disconfirm their hypotheses as in findings that confirm them. But if all we do is seek evidence ppthat is consistent with our hypotheses, we might never find out when they're wrong. Not everybody does this all the time, but that's what we're supposed to do. 2. In correlational studies, investigators seek to observe the relationship (or degree of correlation) between two variables -- say, height and level of depression. Such studies differ from experimental studies in several important respects. For instance, a. in correlational studies, it is difficult to determine what is causing what. b. correlational studies can suffer from what is called the third-variable problem. c. random assignment is not an option in correlational studies. d. All of the above are correct. * 80% correct, r pb = .27. In experimental studies, the investigator deliberately manipulates one or more independent variables to determine the effect of the manipulation on the dependent variable. Therefore, cause-and-effect relations are built into the very design of the study. In correlational studies any relation between the two variables might reflect the fact that one causes the other, but it might also reflect the fact that both effects are caused by some third variable. Moreover, experimental studies typically employ some kind of random assignment of subjects to conditions, so as to avoid the influence of unmeasured confounding variables. Correlational studies, by contrast, make use of natural variation, and so are more susceptible to various confounds. 3. If a study's participants are representative of the population as a whole and its stimuli are representative of stimuli encountered in the real world, then the study is said to have a. internal consistency. b. internal validity. c. external validity. * d. external consistency. 93%, .33. Internal validity has to do with the influence of third, confounding variables. External validity has to do with the degree to which the experimental situation is representative of the world outside the laboratory. 4. Psychology explains human behavior in terms of the individual's a. evolved biochemical, genetic, and hormonal structures and processes. b. neural structures and processes. c. beliefs, feelings, and goals. * d. sociocultural factors such as ethnicity and high vs. low status 77%, .40. 5. Why is the phrase "survival of the fittest" misleading when it comes to
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2011 for the course PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Shimamura during the Fall '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Fall midterm 1 2009 - 1. A hypothesis is testable if a. it...

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