1. A hypothesis is testable if
a. it can be confirmed.
b. it can be disconfirmed.
c. it is sufficiently vague.
d. virtually any set of circumstances could support it.
66% of the class got this item correct, item-to-total r
= .36. Technically, scientists are
supposed to look for evidence that would disconfirm their hypothesis, not confirm it.
At the very least, they ought to be at least as interested in findings that disconfirm their
hypotheses as in findings that confirm them. But if all we do is seek evidence ppthat
is consistent with our hypotheses, we might never find out when they're wrong. Not
everybody does this all the time, but that's what we're supposed to do.
2. In correlational studies, investigators seek to observe the relationship (or degree of
correlation) between two variables -- say, height and level of depression. Such studies
differ from experimental studies in several important respects. For instance,
a. in correlational studies, it is difficult to determine what is causing what.
b. correlational studies can suffer from what is called the third-variable problem.
c. random assignment is not an option in correlational studies.
d. All of the above are correct.
80% correct, r
= .27. In experimental studies, the investigator deliberately
manipulates one or more independent variables to determine the effect of the
manipulation on the dependent variable. Therefore, cause-and-effect relations are
built into the very design of the study. In correlational studies any relation between
the two variables might reflect the fact that one causes the other, but it might also
reflect the fact that both effects are caused by some third variable. Moreover,
experimental studies typically employ some kind of random assignment of subjects to
conditions, so as to avoid the influence of unmeasured confounding variables.
Correlational studies, by contrast, make use of natural variation, and so are more
susceptible to various confounds.
3. If a study's participants are representative of the population as a whole and its
stimuli are representative of stimuli encountered in the real world, then the study is
said to have
a. internal consistency.
b. internal validity.
c. external validity.
d. external consistency.
93%, .33. Internal validity has to do with the influence of third, confounding variables.
External validity has to do with the degree to which the experimental situation is
representative of the world outside the laboratory.
4. Psychology explains human behavior in terms of the individual's
a. evolved biochemical, genetic, and hormonal structures and processes.
b. neural structures and processes.
c. beliefs, feelings, and goals.
d. sociocultural factors such as ethnicity and high vs. low status
5. Why is the phrase "survival of the fittest" misleading when it comes to