02_04_86 - ORGANIC SUBSTITUENT GROUPS AND RING SYSTEMS The...

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ORGANIC SUBSTITUENT GROUPS AND RING SYSTEMS The first part of this table lists substituent groups and their line formulas. A substituent group is defined by IUPAC as a group that replaces one or more hydrogen atoms attached to a parent structure. Such groups are sometimes called radicals, but IUPAC now reserves the term radical for a free molecular species with unpaired electrons. IUPAC does not recommend some of these names, which are marked here with asterisks (e.g., amyl*), but they are included in this list because they are often encountered in the older literature. Substituent group names which are formed by systematic rules (e.g., methyl from methane, ethyl from ethane, etc.) are included here only for the first few members of a homolo- gous series. In the second part of the table a number of common organic ring compounds are shown, with the conventional numbering of the ring positions indicated. The help of Warren H. Powell in preparing this table is great- ly appreciated. Pertinent references may be found in the table “Nomenclature of Chemical Compounds.” acetamido (acetylamino) CH 3 CONH- acetoacetyl CH 3 COCH 2 CO- acetonyl CH 3 COCH 2 - acetyl CH 3 CO- acryloyl* (1-oxo-2-propenyl) CH 2 =CHCO- alanyl (from alanine) CH 3 CH(NH 2 )CO- β-alanyl H 2 N(CH 2 ) 2 CO- allyl (2-propenyl) CH 2 =CHCH 2 - allylidene (2-propenylidene) CH 2 =CHCH= amidino (aminoiminomethyl) H 2 NC(=NH)- amino H 2 N- amyl* (pentyl) CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 - anilino (phenylamino) C 6 H 5 NH- anisidino CH 3 OC 6 H 4 NH- anthranoyl (2-aminobenzoyl) 2-H 2 NC 6 H 4 CO- arsino AsH 2 - azelaoyl (from azelaic acid) -OC(CH 2 ) 7 CO- azido N 3 - azino =N-N= azo -N=N- azoxy -N(O)=N- benzal* (benzylidene) C 6 H 5 CH= benzamido (benzoylamino) C 6 H 5 CONH- benzhydryl (diphenylmethyl) (C 6 H 5 ) 2 CH- benzoxy* (benzoyloxy) C 6 H 5 COO- benzoyl C 6 H 5 CO- benzyl C 6 H 5 CH 2 - benzylidene C 6 H 5 CH= benzylidyne C 6 H 5 C= biphenylyl C 6 H 5 C 6 H 5 - biphenylene -C 6 H 4 -C 6 H 4 - butoxy C 4 H 9 O- sec -butoxy (1-methylpropoxy) C 2 H 5 CH(CH 3 )O- tert -butoxy (1,1-dimethylethoxy) (CH 3 ) 3 CO- butyl CH 3 (CH 2 ) 3 - sec -butyl (1-methylpropyl) CH 3 CH 2 CH(CH 3 )- tert -butyl (1,1-dimethylethyl) (CH 3 ) 3 C- butyryl (1-oxobutyl) CH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 CO- caproyl* (hexanoyl) CH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 CO- capryl* (decanoyl) CH 3 (CH 2 ) 8 CO- capryloyl* (octanoyl) CH 3 (CH 2 ) 6 CO- carbamido (carbamoylamino) H 2 NCONH- carbamoyl (aminocarbonyl) H 2 NCO- carbamyl (aminocarbonyl) H 2 NCO- carbazoyl (hydrazinocarbonyl) H 2 NNHCO- carbethoxy (ethoxycarbonyl) C 2 H 5 OCO- carbonyl =C=O carboxy HOOC- cetyl* (hexadecyl) CH 3 (CH 2 ) 15 - chloroformyl (chlorcarbonyl) ClCO- cinnamoyl C 6 H 5 CH=CHCO- cinnamyl (3-phenyl-2-propenyl) C 6 H 5 CH=CHCH 2 - cinnamylidene C 6 H 5 CH=CHCH= cresyl* (hydroxymethylphenyl) HO(CH 3 )C 6 H 4 - crotonoyl CH 3 CH=CHCO- crotyl (2-butenyl) CH 3 CH=CHCH 2 - cyanamido (cyanoamino) NCNH- cyanato NCO- cyano NC- decanedioyl -OC(CH 2 ) 8 CO- decanoyl CH 3 (CH 2 ) 8 CO- diazo N 2 = diazoamino -NHN=N- disilanyl H 3 SiSiH 2 - disiloxanyloxy H 3 SiOSiH 2 O- disulfinyl -S(O)S(O)- dithio -SS- enanthoyl* (heptanoyl) CH 3 (CH 2 ) 5 CO- epoxy -O-
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