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# 02_08_86 - i =(∂G/∂n i T,p,nj≠i Perfect gas[symbol pg...

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THERMODYNAMIC FUNCTIONS AND RELATIONS p = pressure V = volume T = temperature n i = amount of substance i x i = n i j n j = mole fraction of substance i Energy U Entropy S Enthalpy H = U + pV Helmholtz energy A = U – TS Gibbs energy G = U + pV –TS Isobaric heat capacity C p = (∂H/∂T) p Isochoric heat capacity C V = (∂U/∂T) V Isobaric expansivity α = V –1 (∂V/∂T) p Isothermal compressibility κ T = –V –1 (∂V/∂p) T Isentropic compressibility κ S = –V –1 (∂V/∂p) S κ T κ S = T α 2 V/C p C p – C V = T α 2 V/ κ T Gibbs-Helmholtz equation H = G – T(∂G/∂T) p Maxwell relations (∂S/∂p) T = –(∂V/∂T) p (∂S/∂V) T = –(∂p/∂T) V Joule-Thomson expansion µ JT = (∂T/∂p) H = –{V – T(∂V/∂T) p }/C p φ JT = (∂H/∂p) T = V – T(∂V/∂T) p Partial molar quantity X i = (∂X/∂n i ) T,p,nj≠i Chemical potential µ
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Unformatted text preview: i = (∂G/∂n i ) T,p,nj≠i Perfect gas [symbol pg ] pV = ( Σ i n i )RT µ i pg = µ i θ + RT ln (x i p/p θ ) Fugacity f i = (x i p) exp {(µ i – µ i pg )/RT} Activity coefficient γ i = f i /(x i f i θ ) Gibbs-Duhem relation = S d T – V d p + Σ i n i d µ i [Superscript θ in above equations indicates standard state] Notation for chemical and physical changes ( X = H , S , G , etc.): Chemical reaction ∆ r X Formation from elements ∆ f X Combustion ∆ c X Fusion (cry → liq) ∆ fus X Vaporization (liq → gas) ∆ vap X Sublimation (cry → gas) ∆ sub X Phase transition ∆ trs X Solution ∆ sol X Mixing ∆ mix X Dilution ∆ dil X 2-53...
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