Ch+2+Data+and+Signal+Fundamentals

Ch+2+Data+and+Signal+Fundamentals - Chapter Two...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Two Fundamentals of Data and Signals Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User's Approach, Fourth Edition 2 Chapter 2 Discussion Questions What are the fundamental differences between data and signals? What are the advantages of digital data and signals over analog data and signals? What is meant by the bandwidth of a signal and how is it related to data transfer speed? Why are signal strength and attenuation important data communication issues? 3 Chapter 2 Discussion Questions What are the fundamental characteristics of transmitting analog data with analog signals, digital data with digital signals, digital data with analog signals, and analog data with digital signals? What are the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of each of the basic digital encoding techniques? What are the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of each of the different shift keying (modulation) techniques? 4 Chapter 2 Discussion Questions What are the most common digitization techniques? What are their advantages and disadvantages What are the most widely used data codes and how they are used in communication systems? 5 Data vs. Signals Data are entities that convey meaning (computer files, music on CD, results from a blood gas analysis machine, etc.) Data = entities that convey meaning within a computer or computer system Signals are the electric or electromagnetic encoding of data (telephone conversation, web page download) Signals are the electric or electromagnetic impulses used to encode and transmit data Computer networks and data/voice communication systems transmit signals Data and signals can be analog or digital 6 Data/Signal Combinations Table 2-1 Four combinations of data and signals 7 Analog Signals Analog is a continuous waveform, with examples such as (naturally occurring) music and voice It is harder to separate noise from an analog signal than it is to separate noise from a digital signal (imagine the following waveform is a symphony with noise embedded) 8 Analog Signal Example 9 Digital Signals Digital is a discrete or non-continuous waveform with examples such as computer 1s and 0s Noise in digital signal You can still discern a high voltage from a low voltage Too much noise you cannot discern a high voltage from a low voltage 10 Digital Signal Example 11 Digital Signal with Noise 12 Digital Signal with Too Much Noise 13 Fundamentals of Signals All signals have three components: Amplitude Frequency Phase 14 Signal Fundamentals Amplitude: The height of the wave above or below a given reference point 15 Fundamentals of Signals Frequency The number of times a signal makes a complete cycle within a given time frame; frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz), or cycles per second Spectrum Range of frequencies that a signal spans from minimum to maximum Bandwidth Absolute value of the difference between the...
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Ch+2+Data+and+Signal+Fundamentals - Chapter Two...

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