Ethics-distributed - An Analysis of Ethics as Foundation of...

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An Analysis of Ethics as Foundation of Information Security in Distributed Systems Jussipekka Leiwo Seppo Heikkuri Monash University, PSCIT Nokia Telecommunications, Switching Systems McMahons Road, Frankston, Vic 3199, Australia PO Box 111, Fin-0038, Helsinki, Finland Abstract Security of distributed systems requires both technical and administrative foundations. Technical foundation is based on cryptographic measures and access control models, and is considerable well understood. Administrative foundation is based on several non- technical layers added on top of technical communication protocols. Several models for secure interconnection of information systems suggest common ethics to be the uppermost layer and base for legal, managerial and operational procedures. In this paper, ethics as a foundation of secure interconnection of systems is critically analysed and several problems of ethical layer shall be identified. Considering this analysis, a new group and social contract layer shall be suggested on top of ethical layer. The new approach can be enforced within current technology, supports social behaviour of human beings, and is iterative allowing forming of larger secure communities by interconnecting existing secure groups. 1. Introduction Ethics is an important facet of comprehensive security of information systems. Research in ethics and information systems have been also carried outside the information security community. Anyhow, we see that the relationship of hackers and information security personnel has not yet been properly analysed. Within this report, a philosophical point of view shall be taken, and problems of establishing ethical protection measures against violations of information security shall be studied. Our major argument is that hacking ethics is significantly different from information security ethics, and therefore major difficulties must be solved to establish widely accepted standards for ethical usage on information systems and communication networks. This argument is supported by an extensive analysis and comparison of philosophical and ethical theories. This analysis leads to quite opposite results of the main stream arguments that support the need of common ethical foundation for the security of information systems. A new group and social contract based security layer shall be added on top of ethical layer. This addition provides with a framework that is feasible within the current technology, supports natural social behaviour of human beings, and is iterative enabling forming of larger communities from smaller units. Typically, the hacking community has been arguing for the freedom of information. Security community has been opposing by arguing that system intrusion and hacking, even if no actual harm is caused, is unethical and criminal activity that one should not commit to, even if technically possible. The question rising from this conflict is how can these two groups claim they have a right to tell
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Ethics-distributed - An Analysis of Ethics as Foundation of...

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