Unformatted text preview: 36 250 K ⁺ 165 50 Ca² ⁺ 8 200 Clˉ .01 8 a) Multiple synthesized chloride leak channels are inserted into the cell. Taking only concentration gradients into account, in which direction will the chloride ions diffuse? Explain. b) Extra potassium was added to the intracellular fluid, and the cell was given time to reach electrochemical equilibrium. What would occur if potassium leak channels were then inserted into the plasma membrane? c) The sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) is an important transmembrane protein used by cells to move Ca² ions against their gradient by utilizing the energy released when Na diffuses down its ⁺ ⁺ gradient. What type of transporter is NCX? Describe the movement of sodium and calcium in this pump under normal physiological conditions and what would happen to the NCX mechanism if Na /K -ATPase in this cell failed to function. ⁺ ⁺...
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- Spring '08
- researcher, Ion, Geisel HSS Library, various common ions, Ca²⁺ Clˉ Intracellular