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addiction ch 9 Glutamate

addiction ch 9 Glutamate - Glutamate&Alcohol Glutamate...

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   Glutamate & Alcohol Glutamate: - Excitatory NT in nervous system - Many cells in CNS have receptors - NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate)- receptor that allows  Na+ and Ca++ to enter - These ions depolarize membranes of post-synaptic cells  (hippocampus implicated in  memory & learning). Alcohol inhibits glutamate effectiveness at NMDA receptors and reduces glutamate release!  (may explain black–outs).   With repeated ethanol use, brain compensates for decrease in glutamate activity by  increasing # of NMDA receptors (up-regulation) (hippocampus, cortex). If stop alcohol, within about 10 hours, it is believed that glutamate release rebounds –  more glutamate and more receptors. This corresponds to time for possible seizures during  withdrawal. Also an increase in Ca ++ activity may contribute to some cell death. Frequent attempts 
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