lecture 18 drug abuse 2

lecture 18 drug abuse 2 - Lecture 18 Drug Abuse II Overview...

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12/1/2008 1 Lecture 18 : Drug Abuse II Overview •R e v i e w Mechanisms of drug Mechanisms of drugs • Classification • Opiods • Alcohol • Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates Opioids Opioid —A drug derived from the opium poppy, or a drug that has an action comparable to drugs derived opium. Opioids are analgesics – reduce pain . Natural % Opium —A natural opiate drug. % Morphine —An extremely potent natural opioid that is the main alkaloid compound found in opium. % Codeine —An alkaloid found in opium that is less potent than morphine. Semisynthetic % Heroin —A powerful semisynthetic opioid made by reacting acetic anhydride with morphine. Synthetic % Oxycodone
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12/1/2008 2 Mechanisms of Opioid Action • Work on the same system that endorphins (the endogenous opioids) work on in the CNS. • Opioids and endorphins work by binding s to three different opioids receptors – mu, delta, and kappa, which are widely distributed • Individual opioid drugs can be classified according to their effects on receptors: % Pure agonist – morphine, codeine, heroin % Partial agonist – buprenorphine % Mixed agonist-antagonist – pentazocine % Pure antagonist – naloxone Long-Term Effects of Opioid Use % Abuse potential: % Very high % Creates euphoria, somatic pleasure % Withdrawal: % Hypertension % Tachycardia % Sweating % Alleviates pain % Allows escape from psychological stress % High levels of tolerance % Cross tolerance to all opioid substances % Excessive tears and runny nose % Nausea % Diarrhea % Vomiting % Restlessness %
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lecture 18 drug abuse 2 - Lecture 18 Drug Abuse II Overview...

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