chapter1 - Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology Chapter 1 -...

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Slide 1 Chapter 1 - The Science of Psychology Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology
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Slide 2 Chapter 1 - The Science of Psychology The concept of “intelligence” is like the concept of “magic”, it only holds any validity when we don’t know how its done What about the will, the soul, or consciousness? Early in human history, humans would attribute souls or wills to almost anything … a behaviour termed “animism” In fact, we still fall into those habits today: > Thunder and Lightening The Philosophical Roots of Psychology
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Slide 3 Chapter 1 - The Science of Psychology However, once we “understand” the true causes of certain events … the attribution of a soul often disappears So what of human behaviour? If we ever completely understand the causes of human behaviour, will there be room left for a human soul? Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Believed that the human body, and many of its responses, could be thought of as a highly complex machine However, Descartes also believed that humans possess a soul and free will … a concept called dualism > what if we assume no soul? No free will?
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Slide 4 Chapter 1 - The Science of Psychology John Locke (1632-1704) went a step further then Rene in assuming that even the mind could be thought of as a machine He also strongly advocated the practice of empiricism, the pursuit of truth through observation and experience Contrary to the notion of innate ideas, Locke assumed that all knowledge was acquired through experience alone Basically, Locke and others (e.g., Berkeley, see text) were attempting to understand “learning”, and we are still trying to understand that today The notion that the mind can be thought of as a machine, and that humans are no different from animals, in one termed materialism (James Mill, 1773 - 1836) … and it remains the dominant scientific assumption to this date
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Slide 5 Chapter 1 - The Science of Psychology The Biological Roots of Psychology Although Descartes notion of the body as a hydraulic machine did not hold up, Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) and several unnamed frog matyrs) did support the notion of the body as an “electric” machine Johannes Muller (1801-1858) was the first to systematically study human anatomy and in his “Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies” noted that the basic message sent along all nerves
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chapter1 - Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology Chapter 1 -...

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