chapter5 - Chapter 5 Learning and Behaviour Slide 1 The Big...

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Slide 1 Chapter 5 Learning and Behaviour
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Slide 2 The Big Picture This chapter focuses on the manner in which we learn to behave in certain ways given certain environmental conditions The emphasis will be primarily on stimulus-response mappings, and how they are formed There will be very little discussion of cognitive states or processes … which contrasts quite strongly with the methods that are more popular today Chapter 5 - Learning and Behaviour
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Slide 3 We come equipped with many stimulus response mappings that simply reflect our machinery in action … for examples: > When we put food in our mouths, digestive processes are initiated > If a projectile is coming at our face we close our eyes, duck our heads, raise our hands, and sometimes hold our breath These associations are the produce of evolution (or creation) and the components of them are labeled as unconditioned stimuli (UCS) and unconditioned responses (UCR) > Food (UCS) -> Digestive Process (UCR) Chapter 5 - Learning and Behaviour
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Slide 4 Habituation - Weakening the SR Mapping The occurrence of some novel stimulus in the environment (UCS) tends to lead to a startle response (UCR). However, if the stimulus occurs repeatedly without any positive of negative consequence, the startle response stops occurring. This is a process called habituation … as examples of it consider: (1) Those weird house noises you no longer hear (2) Airplanes at my old place Basically, if the UCR proves itself unnecessary in the presence of some UCS … the UCR may occur less and less Chapter 5 - Learning and Behaviour
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Slide 5 Classical Conditioning - The Extension of SR Mappings to New Stimuli In 1904, a Russian scientist named Ivan Pavlov stumbled across an interesting phenomenon while studying how the canine digestive system worked. This phenomenon has come to be called classical conditioning , and it explains how new stimuli can come to be associated with certain behavioural responses. Pavlov’s is now known as one of the most influential figures in psychology, and his experiments helped to start the wave of behaviourism that ruled psychology for many years. Chapter 5 - Learning and Behaviour
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Slide 6 Pavlov’s Experiment - Baseline At the beginning of the experiment, if a bell was rung near the dog it did not salivate. Chapter 5 - Learning and Behaviour
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Slide 7 Pavlov’s Experiment - Baseline However, if food (UCS) was presented to the dog, it would salivate (UCR) UCS UCR Chapter 5 - Learning and Behaviour
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Slide 8 Pavlov’s Experiment - Conditioning Over a number of trials, the bell the CS or conditioned stimulus is rung just before the food is delivered UCS UCR CS Chapter 5 - Learning and Behaviour
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Slide 9 Pavlov’s Experiment - Testing After a number of conditioning trials, if the CS is
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chapter5 - Chapter 5 Learning and Behaviour Slide 1 The Big...

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