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Conservation Biology

Conservation Biology - Test1 20:19 Conservation Biology A...

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Test 1 20:19 Conservation Biology: A Dynamic and Growing Field Conservation bio has happened due to governmental action, both nationally and internationally o Goal of many national governments; laws such as U.S. Endangered Species Act; Red Lists of endangered species in European Union; most notable – the Convention on Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Conservation bio programs and activities are being funded as never before. o Funding agencies have made conservation biology a primary recipient for funding Conservation biology’s goals have been adopted by traditional conservation organizations. o Agencies have made broader goals of conservation bio Conservation biology’s goals are being incorporated into international scientific activities and policy o 2010 is declared by United Nations the year of biodiversity Conservation biology’s aims and goals are reaching a broader audience through increased media coverage o Popular magazines: National Geographic, Scientific American, Conservation bio courses and curricula are expanding o Large numbers of courses are being taught at all levels Conservation bio has a rapidly expanding professional society o Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) has become one of the Chapter 2. What is biodiversity? Biodiversity- to mean complete range of species and biological communities, the genetic variation within species, and all ecosystem processes o Species diversity-all species on Earth; bacteria, protists, plants fungi and animals; entire range of evolutionary and ecological adaptations of species to particular environments o Genetic diversity- genetic variation within species; important for any species to maintain reproductive vitality, resistance to disease, and ability to adapt to changing conditions o Ecosystem diversity- different biological communities and their associations with the chemical and physical environment; collective response of species to different environmental conditions
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Species diversity o Origin of new species is normally a slow process, taking over hundreds, if not thousands of generations; a new genera takes even longer time What is a species? o Defined in two ways: Morphological definition of species Groups of individuals who are morphologically or biochemically distinct from other groups Used more commonly by taxonomists Taxonomists are biologists who specialize in identification of unknown specimens and classification of species Biological definition of species Group of individuals that can potentially breed among themselves in the wild and that do not breed with individuals of other groups Morpho-species One or more individuals that look different from other individuals and might represent a different species Increasingly, differences in DNA sequences and other molecular markers are being used to distinguish species that look virtually identical, including many species of bacteria, plants, and even animals
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